English Grade 10 - Academic
Course Profiles are professional development materials designed to help teachers implement the new Grade 10 secondary school curriculum. These materials were created by writing partnerships of school boards and subject associations. The development of these resources was funded by the Ontario Ministry
of Education. This document reflects the views of the developers and not necessarily those of the
Ministry. Permission is given to reproduce these materials for any purpose except profit. Teachers are
also encouraged to amend, revise, edit, cut, paste, and otherwise adapt this material for educational
purposes.
Any references in this document to particular commercial resources, learning materials, equipment, or
technology reflect only the opinions of the writers of this sample Course Profile, and do not reflect any
official endorsement by the Ministry of Education or by the Partnership of School Boards that supported
the production of the document.
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2000

Acknowledgments

Public District School Board Writing Teams – English
Course Profile Writing Team

Melanie Barrett, Hastings and Prince Edward DB Nora Christos, Kawartha Pine Ridge DSB
Michael D’Ornellas, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Angela Ferguson, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB
Lois Keebler, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Sheri McCready, Limestone DSB
Mark McKechnie, Limestone DSB Linda Neary, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB
Janice Rideout, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Tina-Marie Sikkema, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB

Reviewers

Nora Allingham, York University Mark Danby, Queen’s University
Tom Chapman, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Damian Cooper, Halton DSB
Marilyn Jordan, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Gilda Leitenberg, Toronto DSB
Troy Maracle, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Denis Mildon, Mildon & Assoc. Ed. Consulting
Susan Mills, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Meri MacLeod, Limestone DSB
Adele Reeves, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB Ron Reeves, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB
Susan Taylor, Ottawa-Carleton DSB Mary Tubbs, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB
Ann Varty, Trillium Lakelands DSB Donna Wallen, Queen’s University

Technical and Secretarial Support

Grant Montgomery, Susan Van Straten, Barbara Huizenga, Donna Dafoe, Pat Clayton,
Hastings and Prince Edward DSB

Project Managers

Helen Beck and Margaret Werkhoven, Hastings and Prince Edward DSB

Lead Board

Hastings and Prince Edward DSB

Partner Boards

Kawartha Pine Ridge DSB Halton DSB Limestone DSB
Ottawa-Carleton DSB Toronto DSB Trillium Lakelands DSB

Page 3 English - Academic

Course Overview
English, Grade 10, Academic

Special Note: The English, Academic and Applied, Grade 10 (Public) Course Profiles have been
written using the Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner. As a result, there are some differences in the
terminology and format from that used in other Course Profiles. Wherever possible, these documents
include both versions of the terminology, e.g., subtask (activity), so that users can work within the
Planner version or any of the Course Profile versions (web site, printed copy, or CD-ROM).
The Curriculum Unit Planner version of these Course Profiles may be found at www.ocup.org.

Description/Rationale

The Grade 10 English course builds on the Grade 9 English course; it extends the range of analytic,
reading, writing, oral communication, and thinking skills that students need for success in secondary
school programs. In the Grade 10 Academic course students study and interpret challenging texts from
contemporary and historical periods, including novels, poems, plays, and opinion pieces, and analyse and
create effective media works. An important focus is the thoughtful use of spoken and written language.

Unit Titles (Time + Sequence)

This Grade 10 Academic English course profile has been developed to link units through a progression of
skills and in some cases content. Local circumstances may dictate some variation in the sequence
suggested below, but it is essential to begin with Unit 1, since the skills developed in this unit are applied
in other units. Unit 5, the final assessment task, must be the last unit of the course.
The teacher does need to read through the entire Profile before the course begins. An independent
reading component for students is introduced in Unit 1, continued through Units 2, 3, and 4 and
concluded in Unit 5. This reading component requires planning and co-ordination with the
teacher/librarian.
This profile has been developed using the field-test version of the Ministry of Education’s Secondary
Curriculum Unit Planner. The principle of “backward” curriculum design is central to the Curriculum
Unit Planner, and to this profile. Each unit has a culminating activity, and the fifth unit includes a final
culminating activity, a Book Festival, which pulls in skills and activities from the other four units, as well
as a final examination.
The teacher is responsible for creating long-range plans, detailed timing for units and activities, and for
making decisions about the best order of activities in a given unit. It is important to read through an entire
unit prior to making specific plans, since later activities may require introduction early in the unit. A
Sequence of Units and a List of Assignments by Unit (Blackline Masters ) have been appended to this
Overview to assist teachers in their planning.
As noted above, the profile writers have assumed full implementation of The Ontario Curriculum,
Grades 1-8 and Grade 9, and have described specific Language and Writing instructional strategies based
on Grade 10 expectations. They recognize, however, as will classroom teachers, that not all Grade 10
students will have achieved skills that have been taught in Grades 1-9 to the same level. Some Language
and Writing expectations particularly need to be revisited, reviewed, re-taught and practised regularly
before all students are able to achieve and maintain them at an appropriate level. Teachers, therefore, will
need to modify and adapt the strategies suggested for the Grade 10 expectations to address student
learning gaps in the Language and Writing skill areas in their individual classrooms.
“A credit is granted in recognition of the successful completion of a course that has been scheduled for a
minimum of 110 hours.” (OSS, 1999, 30) The time allocations in this document must be taken as
approximations.

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Some learning activities may take less time than anticipated, but many may need more time. The diverse
skills, learning needs and interests that students bring to a Grade 10 classroom will require teachers to
exercise good time-management skills, flexibility, and professional judgement as they use this profile.
Unit 1 Beauty and the Beast 23 hours
Unit 2 Voices 22 hours
Unit 3 Diversity 23 hours
Unit 4 Interactions 26 hours
Unit 5 Independence 13 hours

Unit Organization

Unit 1: Beauty and the Beast

Time: 23 hours

Description

As part of the introduction to the course, students read and discuss the course outline and expectations,
and complete diagnostic assessments in language, reading, and writing. These include a speech, an
informal essay about their career as a reader, and a letter to the teacher describing their personal goals for
the course. After an introduction to the Independent Reading component of the course, they choose a
book for their independent reading connected to the theme “Beauty and the Beast” in preparation for Unit
5. Students begin a reading response journal and conference with their teacher.
Students explore the similarities and differences between poetry and prose in short works and in a series
of linked poems and chapters in the novel Lord of the Flies. For the last eight chapters of the novel,
students present their understanding of topics and themes of their chapter in an oral presentation to the
class. They present and explain topic webs, demonstrate the poetic aspects of the writer’s style by
shaping a found poem from the text, and link a modern song to the chapter. As well, they write poems
connected to the themes of the chapters. Using computers, they prepare an anthology of their own poems
and dialogues, with a title page and an introduction. After the presentations, students write a comparison
essay.

Strand(s) and Expectations
Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations: LIV.01P, LIV.02P, LIV.03P, WRV.02P, WRV.03P, WRV.04P, WRV.06P.

Specific Expectations: LI1.01D, LI1.04D, LI1.05D, LI2.01D, LI2.02D, LI3.01D, LI3.02D, LI3.03D,
WR2.01D, WR2.04D, WR3.03D, WR4.01D, WR4.03D, WR5.02D, WR5.03D, WR5.04D, WR5.05D,
LG1.03D, LG1.04D, LG1.05D.

Unit 2: Voices

Time: 22 hours

Description

Students explore the web of issues that surrounds them through the examination of literature,
informational texts, and media. They analyse a number of arguments to determine their effectiveness and
explore their own value systems and the value systems of others. With the assistance of the teacherlibrarian
they use research skills to gather information to support their arguments.
Through the use of rhetorical devices and persuasive techniques, students develop their argumentative
skills in both oral and written form. They make arguments through a variety of products such as journal
responses, outlines, role playing, and persuasive essays. They participate in a final task, a formal debate.

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Students continue the Independent Reading component begun in Unit 1, by reading a book dealing with a
controversial issue in preparation for Unit 5. Students maintain their reading response journal and
conference with the teacher.

Strand(s) and Expectations
Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, Media Studies

Overall Expectations: LIV.01D, LIV.03D, WRV.01D, WRV.03D, LGV.01D, LGV.02D, MDV.02D.

Specific Expectations: LI1.02D, LI1.04D, LI1.06D, LI2.02D, LI2.03D, LI3.01D, LI3.02D, WR1.01D,
WR1.02D, WR1.03D, WR1.04D, WR2.02D, WR2.04D, WR3.02D, WR3.04D, WR5.01D, WR5.03D,
WR5.07D, WR5.08D, WR5.09D, WR5.10D, LG1.01D, LG1.03D, LG1.04D, LG1.05D, LG1.06,
LG1.07D, LG2.01D, LG2.02, LG2,03, LG2.04D, LG2.05D, LG2.08D.

Unit 3: Diversity

Time: 23 hours

Description

Students analyse literary, mythic, and media works to explore and interpret our multicultural society.
They read and write frequently at home and at school for both formative and summative purposes.
To begin the unit, students write a number of journal responses exploring their perceptions of issues such
as belonging, power, privilege, and identity. They write analyses of pattern, purpose, and characteristics
in myths, legends, and stories. They make a creative oral presentation on modern short stories based on
the critical and analytical skills developed in this task. Students also analyse modern dramas and sitcoms
and write a review applying their emerging knowledge, values, and beliefs. Finally, students design a
multigenre anthology in which they make creative decisions about point of view, format, and stylistic
conventions. The anthology comprises a television review, a myth, and a final journal entry.
Students continue the Independent Reading component begun in Unit 1 by reading a book connected to
the theme “Diversity” in preparation for Unit 5. They maintain their reading response journal and
conference with the teacher.

Strand(s) and Expectations
Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, Media Studies

Overall Expectations: LIV.02D, WRV.03D, WRV.04D, WRV.05D, LGV.01D, LGV.02D, MDV.01D.

Specific Expectations: LI1.01D, LI1.02D, LI1.03D, LI1.04D, LI1.05D, LI1.06D, LI1.07D, LI2.02D,
LI2.03D, LI3.01D, LI3.02D, WR1.03D, WR2.01D, WR2.02D, WR2.03D, WR2.04D, WR3.01D,
WR4.04D, WR5.02, WR5.04D, WR5.06D, WR5.11D, WR5.12D, LG1.03D, LG1.04D, LG1.05D,
LG1.06D, LG1.07D, LG2.01D, LG2.02D, LG2.08D, MD1.01D, MD1.02D, MD1.03D, MD2.01D,
MD2.02D, MD2.03D.

Unit 4: Interactions

Time: 26 hours

Description

The literature focus of this unit is the Shakespearean play Romeo and Juliet, which provides an historical
work, a drama, and poetry all in one. The writing focus is the writing of clear, well-supported paragraphs
and written personal response. Students demonstrate their understanding of relationships through a range
of responses, including guided personal responses, class discussion, written paragraphs, and oral and
dramatic presentations. The language focus on speaking culminates in groups of students dramatizing and
analysing a scene from the play. The students practise an in-class essay in preparation for the final
written examination.

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During this unit the Independent Reading component begun in Unit 1 becomes a homework activity so
that students can complete the required reading or further their reading. They complete their reading
response journal and hand it in to the teacher. Students select their best piece of writing from their
response journal and refine it in preparation for publication at the Book Festival.

Strand(s) and Expectations
Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, Media Studies

Overall Expectations: LIV.02D, LIV.03D, WRV.03D, WRV.06D, LGV.01D, LGV.02D, MDV.02D.

Specific Expectations: LI1.03D, LI1.04D, LI1.05D, LI1.06D, LI1.08D, LI2.02D, WR1.02D, WR2.02D,
WR2.04D, WR3.03D, WR4.01D, WR4.02D, WR4.03D, WR4.04D, WR5.04D, LG1.02D, LG1.06D,
LG2.01D, LG2.02D, LG2.04D, LG2.06D, MD1.04D.

Unit 5: Independence

Time: 13 hours

Description

The Independent Reading component runs concurrently through Units 1, 2, 3, and 4.
As part of the course introduction, students describe their own careers as readers in a written essay.
During Units 1, 2, and 3, students develop their reading skills by reading books connected to the themes
of the units, by maintaining a weekly reading response journal, and by participating in conferences with
the teacher. Students hand in their reading response journals and complete two polished written pieces,
an oral book talk, and a media display on their independently chosen books.
In this unit students publicize and participate in a Book Festival, a public demonstration of their
achievement of the overall and specific expectations for this course.

Strand(s) and Expectations
Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, Media Studies

Overall Expectations: LIV.01P, LIV.02P, LIV.03P, WRV.02P, WRV.03P, WRV.04P, WRV.06P,
LGV.01P, LGV.02P, MDV.02P.

Specific Expectations: LI1.01P, WR2.02P, WR2.03P, WR5.02P, WR.05P, LG2.02P, LG2.03P,
LG2.04P, LG2.05P, LG2.06P.

Course Notes

The Grade 10 English Academic course prepares students for Grade 11 and 12 university courses. The
Grade 10 English Applied course prepares students for Grade 11 and 12 college and workplace courses.
The goal of both Grade 10 courses is the further development of language literacy skills. Both courses
are grounded in a recognition of the importance, for all students, of language and literature in learning
and everyday life.
The difference between the Applied and Academic courses is one of emphasis. The Academic course
emphasizes analytical and abstract thinking; the Applied course emphasizes practical and concrete
thinking. In the Grade 10 Academic course, students study and interpret challenging texts from
contemporary and historical periods; analyse and create effective media works; and use spoken and
written language in a thoughtful way. In the Grade 10 Applied course, students study novels, poems,
magazines, and reports; describe, design, and produce effective media works; and use spoken and written
language in a clear and coherent way.
The secondary English program is described in The Ontario Curriculum in four strands: Literature
Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, and Media Studies. This Grade 10 Academic profile has been
organized thematically into four units, with a final culminating activity as a fifth unit. Each of the units
incorporates overall and specific expectations from each of the strands. This organizational structure
supports an integrated approach to the teaching and learning of the 12 overall and 65 specific
expectations.

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This profile has been developed using a “backward design” approach. The profile writers first identified
desired results (i.e., considered the expectations), determined acceptable evidence (i.e., established
assessment tasks) and then planned learning experiences and instruction (i.e., suggested teaching
strategies and resources). The profile writers have been guided in this approach by the work of Grant
Wiggins and Jay McTighe (Understanding by Design, Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development, 1998).
The electronic Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner, which will be available for broad secondary use in
September 2000, also uses a backward design approach.
Language literacy is fundamental to learning in all subjects. Teachers of English should work with other
subject teachers in the school to support a planned and consistent approach to student language
proficiency across the Grade 10 program, based on the Communication category of the Achievement
Chart found in each curriculum document.
Students need to become skilled users of information technology. Each of the strands in the Grade 10
English course includes references within the expectations to electronic sources of information and the
student use of electronic technologies. Collaboration and co-planning with other subject teachers is
particularly important in this area of the curriculum.
The instructional plan for each thematic unit described in this profile encourages connections to a broad
range of community resources. These may include print or electronic sources of information; sites for
field trips; the names of authors, artists, and other resource people; physical resources; commercial and
publicly-funded enterprises; and post-secondary institutions. These can also be resources for students
planning careers and further education.
Teachers must ensure that all classroom activities and out-of-school experiences are safe for all students.
Teachers of English have particular responsibility in the following areas: appropriate student use of the
Internet; the selection of suitable texts and reading materials; the use of language appropriate to an
English classroom; and the safe structuring of physical activities in the classroom. In addition, teachers of
English share with other subject teachers a responsibility for ensuring a learning environment which
provides students with the emotional security necessary to take the risks which lead to learning.
This profile demonstrates one way in which teachers of Grade 10 Academic English can address the
expectations contained in The Ontario Curriculum. Reference to specific texts are included on the
premise that classroom teachers will find such specificity useful and time-saving. Although English
teachers are always updating their school’s collection of texts and other resources as budgets allow,
teachers continue to make use of literary texts currently available in schools that have stood the test of
time and student preference. Many of the texts and materials cited in this profile are already in common
use. Teachers make appropriate choices and substitutions of materials based on the learning needs of
their own students and the diverse needs of their unique school community.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Language is best learned through activities that present stimulating ideas, issues, and themes meaningful
to students. Teachers must use a rich variety of teaching/learning activities in all English programs to
accommodate the diverse learning styles of students. They should select classroom activities that are
based on an assessment of students’ individual needs, proven learning theory and best practice.
The units and culminating activities reflect the research on Multiple Intelligences (e.g., Frames of Mind,
Howard Gardner) which encourages the development of linguistic, mathematical, musical, kinesthetic,
spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and natural intelligences. It is important for students to have access
to a variety of opportunities to present what they know according to their talents or intelligences. Such an
approach builds on student interests and talent necessary to make English a highly engaging course.

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Instructional Strategies in Grade 10 English:

provide for explicit teaching of knowledge and skills;

encourage maximum student engagement in the learning activity;

encourage student choice regarding the processes and products of learning in the English classroom;

include whole class, small group, and individual instruction;

encourage students to reflect on their learning: to clarify, elaborate, describe, compare, negotiate, and
reach consensus on what expectations mean to them;

use electronic technology as appropriate;

address a variety of learning styles in each unit;

modify activities for exceptional students;

promote direct involvement in a variety of concrete experiences and abstract thinking which enable
students to construct their own understanding of concepts and principles;

provide opportunities for genuine inquiry – to generate questions, apply a variety of investigative
approaches, and communicate learning in a variety of ways;

engage students in self- and peer evaluation;

use formative assessment to provide opportunities for practice and consolidation;

connect with expectations from other subject areas as appropriate;

make authentic connections with the classroom, the school, the local community, and the school at
large;

respect the cultural diversity of Ontario classrooms.

The Ontario Curriculum mandates student learning expectations; it does not mandate teaching strategies.
It is the professional responsibility of teachers to determine the most appropriate and effective ways to
address the achievement of the learning expectations for students in their classroom. The Ontario
Curriculum does, however, provide possible teaching strategies within its description of the expectations.
These strategies have been incorporated into this course profile.
Units in this profile make reference to the use of specific magazines, films, and videos in
Teaching/Learning Strategies. Before reproducing materials for student use from books and magazines,
teachers need to ensure that their Board has a Cancopy licence and that resources they wish to use are
covered by this licence. Before screening videos for students, teachers must ensure that their
Board/school has obtained the appropriate public performance video cassette site licence from an
authorized distributor (e.g., Audio Ciné Films Inc.) If the appropriate licences are not in place, teachers
will have to seek permission from authors, publishers, or film or television production companies as
necessary.
Teachers are also reminded that much of the material on the Internet is protected by copyright. That
copyright is usually owned by the person or organization that created the work. Reproduction of any
work or a substantial part of any work on the Internet is not allowed without the permission of the owner.

Copyright Guide for Canadian Libraries (Wanda Noel, Canadian Library Association, Ottawa, 1999) is a
useful resource for teachers who wish to have a clearer understanding of copyright.

Page 9 English - Academic

Accommodations

Exceptional pupils should be given every opportunity to achieve the learning expectations set out in The
Ontario Curriculum policy documents. General teaching, learning, and assessment strategies for helping
exceptional students achieve English curriculum expectations are provided in each of the units in this
profile. Teachers should consult the IEPs of exceptional students for specific details. The profile writers
have built a significant amount of student choice into learning and assessment activities to support the
needs of exceptional students, including gifted students.
Adjustments must also be made by the teacher to acknowledge the range and diversity of cultural
understandings possible within the classroom, and accommodations may be necessary for the success of
students for whom English is a second language.

Assessment/Evaluation

Assessment is the systematic process of collecting information or evidence about student learning;
evaluation is the judgment teachers make about the assessments of student learning based on established
criteria. The units in this profile include suggestions for diagnostic, formative and summative
assessments. Diagnostic assessment is used at the beginning of a unit to help determine a starting point
for instruction. Formative assessment provides information to students as they are learning and refining
their skills. Summative assessments at the end of units and a course give students an opportunity to
synthesize/apply/demonstrate their learning. Summative assessments are counted toward the student's
final mark.
In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid, reliable, and lead to the improvement of
student learning, English teachers use assessment and evaluation strategies that:

address both what students learn and how well they learn;

are based on the four broad categories and descriptions in the achievement chart for English;

are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide students with the
opportunity to demonstrate the full range of their learning;

maintain a balance among all four categories of the Achievement Chart;

are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purpose of instruction, and the needs and
experiences of the students;

are fair to all students;

accommodate the needs of exceptional students, consistent with the strategies outlined in their
Individual Education Plans;

accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction;

ensure that students are given clear directions for improvement;

promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals;

include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement;

are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the course and at other
appropriate points throughout the course.
Embedded in this course profile is the wide variety of assessment strategies and tools available to
teachers of English: teacher observation, oral presentations, interviews, essays, quizzes, tests,
examinations, learning logs, performance tasks, portfolios, self-assessment, questions and answers.
Because this profile has been developed using “backward design”, the course profile writers began their
work by designing culminating tasks or activities for each of the five units that addressed the overall
expectations, and by working backwards from there. A culminating activity is a summative assessment
which provides an opportunity for students to perform, create, or demonstrate some significant skills and
knowledge. Culminating activities have a real world context, involve higher level knowledge and skills
than could be achieved through an isolated application and clear criteria and levels for judging the quality

Page 10 English - Academic

of the performance. Task-specific rubrics are the most effective way to assess culminating activities, and
have been included with each of the units in this profile.
Rubrics can also play an important role in instruction (e.g., teachers use rubrics to focus student attention
on the specific knowledge and skills embedded in particular assignments). When they are combined with
exemplars of student work, rubrics clarify for students the improvements that are possible and necessary
in their own work.
Initial assessment tasks (diagnostic assessment) have been built into the first unit to help teachers
determine, in a preliminary way, the strengths and weaknesses of their students. The results of this
diagnostic assessment will also help teachers to plan (using the mini-lesson framework provided) specific
Writing and Language lessons to address both the Grade 10 expectations and any learning gaps which are
evident. Specific diagnostic activities are not built into the beginning of each of the other units in the
same way, but it is expected that teachers will continue to plan their own classroom instruction on a daily
basis, using the results of ongoing diagnostic assessment of their students’ learning needs. Each unit does
include learning tasks and appropriate formative assessments which support the learning to be
demonstrated in the culminating task.

Course Evaluation

Teachers of English should systematically review course content, instructional strategies, and assessment
procedures and make the program changes necessary to improve student achievement. Teachers should
collect data informally about program effectiveness from students, throughout the course, and should
provide students with a formal way to provide input at the end of the course.

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Coded Expectations, English, ENG2D

Literature Studies and Reading

Overall Expectations

LIV.01D

– read and demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational texts, both
contemporary and from historical periods;

LIV.02D

– demonstrate an understanding of the elements of a range of literary and informational forms, with a
focus on novels, poems, plays, and opinion pieces;

LIV.03D

– identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and informational
texts.

Specific Expectations

Understanding the Meaning of Texts
LI1.01D

– describe information, ideas, opinions, and themes in print and electronic texts they have read
during the year from different cultures and historical periods and in a range of genres, including
novels, plays, short stories, poetry, opinion pieces, reports, short essays, full-length non-fiction
works, newspapers, magazines, and reference materials;

LI1.02D

– select and read a range of texts for different purposes, with an emphasis on recognizing the
elements of literary genres and the organization of informational materials, evaluating print and
electronic materials as sources of information, and comparing personal ideas and values with those in
texts (e.g., read multicultural short fiction to deepen their understanding of Canada’s diversity; assess
the usefulness of a manual for a software application; develop a “profile” of a character in a play by
Shakespeare or a novel and then role-play an interview with the character);

LI1.03D

– select and use a variety of reading strategies before, during, and after reading to understand texts
(e.g., preview a text; predict main ideas or outcomes; use prior knowledge and personal experiences
to interpret and assess ideas and information list unanswered questions while reading; role-play
alternative solutions to conflicts presented in the text);

LI1.04D

– use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support interpretations
(e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short story; select
quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);

LI1.05D

– analyse information, ideas, and elements in texts and synthesize and communicate their findings
(e.g., read a biography and make a speech about the person to the class; create a fictitious newspaper
report about the events and issues in a novel or short story);

LI1.06D

– present sufficient significant evidence from a text to support opinions and judgements (e.g., defend
in a debate a controversial statement from a short essay, or an action by a character in a story;
incorporate quotations from a play in an essay about the pattern of imagery in the text);

Page 12 English - Academic

LI1.07D

– explain how the values and perspectives of readers might influence their responses to a text and
interpretations of it (e.g., record individual responses of group members to a poem, note similarities
and differences in the responses, identify patterns, and suggest explanations for their findings
compare the implicit perspectives in two letters to the editor about the same article);

LI1.08D

– explain how historical or cultural contexts shape the information and ideas in a text (e.g., research
the historical or cultural context of a novel and suggest how it gave rise to the social attitudes
depicted; compare nineteenth-century and modern attitudes to the theme of a novel by Dickens).

Understanding the Forms of Texts
LI2.01D

– use knowledge of elements of the novel, such as plot and subplot, characterization, setting, conflict,
theme, point of view, and cultural and historical contexts, to understand and interpret examples of the
genre (e.g., rewrite a passage from a novel, adopting the point of view of another character; use
knowledge of the cultural or historical context of a novel to understand the language and events in
the work);

LI2.02D

– use knowledge of elements of poetry, such as stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm, punctuation, free verse,
imagery, and sound devices, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., write a lyric or
ballad in rhyming couplets; present a choral reading of a poem, emphasizing onomatopoeia);

LI2.03D

– use knowledge of elements of opinion pieces, such as overt statement of a position or opinion, type
of diction, tone, paragraphing, transition words and phrases, selective supporting detail, allusions,
and appeals to authority, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., relate the position
taken to the tone used in an editorial; refer to an encyclopedia to clarify a historical allusion used in a
newspaper column; write an opinion piece for the school newspaper).

Understanding the Elements of Style
LI3.01D

– compare the use of diction and syntax in the work of different authors and explain how these
elements enhance the theme or message (e.g., compare the use of sentence variety in paragraphs by
two different authors; identify examples of archaic diction in literature from any historical period and
give modern-English equivalents);

LI3.02D

– explain how authors use stylistic devices, such as allusion, contrast, hyperbole, understatement,
oxymoron, irony, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing (e.g., explain the effects of
the contradictory emotions or qualities expressed in an oxymoron; compare the poetic devices used
in two poems on a similar theme; do research to understand a mythical allusion in a piece of
literature or an advertisement and explain how the allusion enhances the theme or message in the
text);

LI3.03D

– explain how authors and editors use design elements to help communicate ideas (e.g., explain how
typography and layout contribute to meaning in a concrete poem; prepare a title page and
bibliography template for an academic paper and defend their design decisions; create electronic
links showing where and how to find related material).

Page 13 English - Academic

Writing

Overall Expectations

WRV.01D

– use a range of print and electronic sources to gather information and explore ideas for written
work;

WRV.02D

– identify the literary and informational forms suited to various purposes and audiences and use the
forms appropriately in their own writing, with an emphasis on adopting a suitable voice;

WRV.03D

– use a variety of organizational techniques to present ideas and information logically and coherently
in written work;

WRV.04D

– revise their written work, independently and collaboratively, with a focus on support for ideas and
opinions, accuracy, clarity, coherence, and effective use of stylistic devices;

WRV.05D

– edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support
of print and electronic resources when appropriate.

Specific Expectations

Generating Ideas and Gathering Information
WR1.01D

– investigate potential topics by formulating questions, identifying information needs and purposes
for writing, and developing research plans to gather data (e.g., identify and rank focus questions;
identify key words and electronic search terms to structure research; determine which sources of
information are most relevant to the purpose for writing);

WR1.02D

– locate and summarize information and ideas from print and electronic sources, including
interviews, surveys, statistical data banks, reports, periodicals, and news-groups (e.g., conduct an
electronic search for information on regional Canadian authors; summarize and paraphrase
information and ideas in point-form notes and in graphic organizers);

WR1.03D

– sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research
(e.g., verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify
significant omissions that need to be addressed);

WR1.04D

– use the information and ideas generated, researched, and evaluated to develop the content of
written work.

Choosing the Form to Suit the Purpose and Audience
WR2.01D

– demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational forms, such as poems,
narratives, comparison-and-contrast and cause-and-effect essays, speeches, and research reports, by
using forms of writing appropriate to different purposes and audiences (e.g., rewrite an episode of a
story from the point of view of a different character; use a formal, objective voice in a short essay;
write a speech for a class debate);

Page 14 English - Academic

WR2.02D

– produce written work for a variety of purposes, with a focus on interpreting and analysing
information, ideas, themes, and issues and supporting opinions with convincing evidence (e.g., state
and support an opinion; compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in two different works;
explain how the images or setting in a work of fiction contribute to the overall theme);

WR2.03D

– consider the characteristics of the intended audience in selecting an appropriate form and
developing the content of written work (e.g., use examples or images familiar to their peers in a poem
to be read in class; include background information the audience needs to know in the introduction to
an essay);

WR2.04D

– select a voice and an appropriate level of language to suit the form, purpose, and audience of their
writing (e.g., use an impersonal voice and formal language in an academic essay; use everyday
vocabulary and colloquial phrasing to engage the interest of an audience of peers).

Organizing Ideas and Information in Written Work
WR3.01D

– use plot structure and character portrayal to develop themes in short stories (e.g., use flashbacks to
develop the theme of memory in a short story);

WR3.02D

– structure the introductory paragraphs of short essays using a clear statement of the topic or thesis, a
device to engage the reader’s interest, and an overview of the main points to be covered;

WR3.03D

– use a pattern such as comparison and contrast, cause and effect, or classification to structure short
essays;

WR3.04D

– use plot structure and character portrayal to present conflicts in a short story (e.g., introduce a
conflict in the first half of a short story and provide the resolution of the conflict in the second half;
describe two characters’ different reactions to the same event to prepare for a later clash between
them).

Revising Drafts
WR4.01D

– revise drafts to ensure that ideas are adequately supported by relevant details and facts and to
achieve clarity, unity, and coherence (e.g., reinforce a mood or feeling by elaborating the imagery in
a poem or short story; read a supported opinion piece aloud with a partner or in a small group to
check for coherence and effectiveness; remove redundancies and expand supporting detail in a
report);

WR4.02D

– revise drafts to ensure consistency in the use of first or third person and use of an appropriate level
of language;

WR4.03D

– make constructive suggestions to peers in a writing conference (e.g., identify ways to address
problems of control in writing such as redundancies or inappropriate level of language; create
checklists based on established criteria and use them when discussing a piece of writing);

WR4.04D

– consider reactions of teachers, peers, and others in revising and editing written work.

Page 15 English - Academic

Editing, Proofreading, and Publishing
WR5.01D

– identify borrowed information, ideas, and quotations and use a variety of techniques to incorporate
them smoothly into written work and independent research projects (e.g., provide a context for
quoted material; use transition words and phrases to link information from different sources; include
a brief bibliography to identify reference materials consulted);

WR5.02D

– select the publication method or vehicle most accessible or appealing to the intended audience,
using technology in a variety of ways where appropriate (e.g., write a letter or e-mail message to
recommend a book to a friend; submit work to a writing contest in the required format; write and
format a concrete poem for the school yearbook);

WR5.03D

– assess their facility with the writing process, documenting their use of genres and forms in personal
and assigned writing and identifying goals for writing improvement and growth (e.g., use samples
from their writing folder to demonstrate their growth and achievement in writing; produce and carry
out an action plan to improve their use of language conventions);

WR5.04D

– edit and proofread their own and others’ writing, correcting errors according to the requirements
for grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation listed below;

WR5.05D

– use parts of speech correctly, including the infinitive and the gerund;

WR5.06D

– construct a variety of complete and correct sentences (including compound-complex sentences),
using prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive, participial, and gerund phrases; and
noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;

WR5.07D

– use verb voice (i.e., active and passive) to suit purpose and audience;

WR5.08D

– use knowledge of a wide range of spelling patterns, rules, and strategies to analyse and correct
spelling errors;

WR5.09D

– spell specific historical, academic, and technical terms correctly;

WR5.10D

– use a variety of resources to correct errors in spelling (e.g., dictionaries, spell checkers);

WR5.11D

– use punctuation correctly, including the semicolon (e.g., use the semicolon to join principal clauses
and to separate elements in a list that contains commas);

WR5.12D

– use the comma, dash, and parentheses correctly to set off non-restrictive elements in a sentence;

WR5.13D

– use punctuation correctly when quoting short passages from texts.

Page 16 English - Academic

Language

Overall Expectations

LGV.01D

– use knowledge of vocabulary and language conventions to speak, write, and read competently and
effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences, using a level of language appropriate to the
context;

LGV.02D

– use listening techniques and oral communication skills to participate in classroom discussions and
more formal activities, such as dramatizing, presenting, and debating, for a variety of purposes and
audiences.

Specific Expectations

Developing Vocabulary and Knowledge of Language Structures and Conventions
LG1.01D

– identify examples of the use of idioms, euphemisms, slang, dialect, acronyms, academic language,
technical terms, and standard Canadian English in oral and written work, and explain why the usage
is effective in its context;

LG1.02D

– identify ways in which technology, other languages, and the media have influenced the English
language (e.g., explain when and why particular nouns and verbs entered the language, both in earlier
centuries and in recent years; give examples of technical terms and media phrases used in a variety of
contexts);

LG1.03D

– select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their
sound and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);

LG1.04D

– select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama);

LG1.05D

– recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;

LG1.06D

– recognize, describe, and correct sentence errors in oral and written language (e.g., run-on sentence,
comma splice, dangling modifier);

LG1.07D

– recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the conventions of standard
Canadian English for the following:
– spelling: historical, academic, and technical terms;
– punctuation: semicolon; non-restrictive phrases and clauses; quotations from texts.

Page 17 English - Academic

Developing Listening and Speaking Skills
LG2.01D

– communicate orally in group discussions for different purposes, with a focus on identifying explicit
and implicit ideas and comparing and contrasting key concepts and supporting details;

LG2.02D

– communicate in group discussions by assigning tasks fairly and equitably; using verbal and nonverbal
cues to signal a change in topic or speaker; contributing ideas, supporting interpretations and
viewpoints; extending and questioning the ideas of others; summarizing the progress of the group’s
work; checking for understanding; and negotiating consensus when appropriate;

LG2.03D

– apply techniques of effective listening and demonstrate an understanding of oral presentations by
summarizing presenters’ arguments and explaining how vocabulary, body language, tone, and visual
aids enhance presentations (e.g., make and confirm or revise predictions; identify the purposes and
perspective of a presentation; analyse the ideas and arguments presented; discuss the use of visual
aids in a presentation);

LG2.04D

– plan and make oral presentations independently, adapting vocabulary and using methods of
delivery to suit audience, purpose, and topic (e.g., identify purpose and audience; gather ideas and
information; plan, create, rehearse, and revise presentations such as dramatizations, panel
discussions, and debates; assess their work independently and with help from peers);

LG2.05D

– use rhetorical questions, emotional appeals, gestures, intonation, and visual aids and technology, as
appropriate, to engage the audience’s interest during oral presentations;

LG2.06D

– rehearse with visual aids and props, study audio- and videotaped rehearsals, and use mnemonic
devices and visualization techniques to ensure confident delivery in oral presentations;

LG2.07D

– identify the oral communication skills required in a variety of postsecondary programs and
occupations and cite specific examples of their use (e.g., interview recent school graduates about the
importance of these skills for success in college and university programs and report their findings);

LG2.08D

– analyse their own and others’ oral presentations, identifying strengths and weaknesses and
developing and carrying out plans for improvement

Page 18 English - Academic

Media Studies

Overall Expectations

MDV.01D

– analyse a range of media forms to identify their elements, audiences, and production practices, and
draw conclusions about how these factors shape media works;

MDV.02D

use knowledge of a range of media forms, purposes, and audiences to create media works, and use
established criteria to assess the effectiveness of the works.

Specific Expectations

Analysing Media and Media Works
MD1.01D

– demonstrate critical thinking skills by identifying the differences between explicit and implicit
messages in media works (e.g., write a report comparing unique features of several newspapers to
assess their appeal to readers; explain the satire in a parody of a media work);

MD1.02D

– identify key elements and techniques used to create media works in a variety of forms (e.g.,
illustrations and captions in political cartoons; narrative and characterization in a film or television
drama; the choice of symbols and colours used to convey health and safety warnings on the
packaging of a range of products) and analyse how these elements and techniques contribute to the
theme or message;

MD1.03D

– analyse the elements of a variety of media works, in order to identify and describe the intended
audience(s) for the works (e.g., analyse advertising in a range of newspapers and magazines to
identify the target audiences);

MD1.04D

– analyse the relationship between media works and the production and marketing of related products
(e.g., explain in a written or oral report how the target audience for a film determines the range of
products marketed with it, and how this marketing, in turn, helps shape the film).

Creating Media Works
MD2.01D

– adapt an idea, theme, or issue from a work of literature for presentation in two related media forms,
and assess the presentations to determine what aspects of the original have been strengthened and/or
weakened by the adaptations (e.g., write a script adapting a short story or scene from a novel for
radio and television; create a personal anthology of poetry in print and as a web page with links to
related sites);

MD2.02D

– create media works for different purposes and explain how the design decisions for each were
shaped by the purpose (e.g., create a public-service video to inform people about a health hazard;
construct a collage of print advertisements to illustrate the media’s concept of a teenager);

MD2.03D

– design media works appropriate to different audiences and explain why certain elements will
appeal to a particular audience (e.g., design a magazine for a specific audience, and explain how it
differs from typical magazines).

Unit 1 - Page 1 English - Academic

Unit 1: Beauty and the Beast

Time: 23 hours

Unit Developers: Lois Keebler, Michael D’Ornellas

Development Date April 2000

Unit Description

This introductory unit emphasizes the power of language, the power of reading, and the power of goalsetting
to make a positive difference in the lives of students. The first four lessons present the course
outline; introductory activities in language, reading, writing, and media; and diagnostic assessment to
determine the skills and interests of the students. Students describe their goals for the course in a letter to
the teacher.
Next, a study which combines poetry and a novel enables students to compare the effects of each genre,
and to highlight thematic connections. The main themes of this unit are “beauty” and “the beast”. The
novel selected for this profile, Lord of the Flies, is a rich source of poetic prose and themes. Students
write dialogues as a way to demonstrate their insights into characters, and poems as a way to express
their reactions to themes. After the teacher demonstrates how to synthesize and communicate
understanding of a chapter by topic webs, found poems, and matching songs or poems, the students in
groups teach the subsequent chapters to the class. Their response to the unit culminates in a creative
writing anthology.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations: LIV.02D, LIV.03D, WRV.02D, WRV.04D, WRV.05D.

Specific Expectations: LI1.04D, LI1.05D, LI2.01D, LI2.02D, LI3.01D, LI3.02D, LI3.03, WR2.01D,
WR4.01D, WR4.03D, WR5.02D, WR5.04D, LG1.03D, LG1.04D, LG1.05D.

Subtask (Activity) Titles (Time + Sequence)

Subtask 1 The Power of Language 70 minutes
Subtask 2 The Power of Reading 70 minutes
Subtask 3 The Power of Goal-Setting 70 minutes
Subtask 4 Introduction to Poetic and Narrative Forms 140 minutes
Subtask 5 Guided Reading of Four Chapters Using Poetry/Dialogue Responses 420 minutes
Subtask 6 Stand and Deliver 350 minutes
Subtask 7 Writing “Thematic” Poetry 140 minutes
Subtask 8 Creative Writing Anthology 140 minutes

Unit Planning Notes

Teachers read through the entire course profile and set a timeframe for the units, the assignments,
and the Book Festival (one of the culminating activities of the course).

Teachers involve the school librarian in making plans for the Independent Reading component which
is introduced in this unit. Together, they prepare a booklist of appropriate reading for each unit, and
schedule class visits to the library. The writers have prepared a sample reading list for students. [See
BLM 1.2-2 (b): Suggested Books for Independent Reading.] Librarians, bookstore managers, other
teachers, friends, and booklists on the Internet are sources of advice regarding book choices. One
issue concerning Grade 10 readers is whether they read adult books or Young Adult books. In

Unit 1 - Page 2 English - Academic

practice, each teacher with the help of the teacher-librarian will need to prepare a booklist based on
books in their school or nearby libraries which match the needs of their particular students and their
community. The writers recommend Nanci Atwell’s book In the Middle to teachers who want to read
more about incorporating independent reading in their classroom.
The teacher contacts parents/guardians to ask for their support of the reading program.

BLM 1.2-3 contains a summary of the Grammar Expectations for Grade 10, drawn directly from The
Ontario Curriculum, Grade 9 and 10, English. The writers have made the assumption that the
Grammar Expectations for Grades 1-9 have been met. By the end of this course, the teacher will have
addressed the expectations outlined on BLM 1.2-3. Teachers plan and integrate mini-lessons to
address these expectations. Teachers keep in mind that these “conventions are best learned in the
context of meaningful and creative writing activities that allow students to develop the ability to
think and write clearly and effectively” (The Ontario Curriculum, 6.). To support this strategy, the
writers have included samples of mini-lessons. [See BLMs 1.2-4 and 1.2-5.] These sample lessons
offer a framework on which teachers may build their own lessons to meet the stated expectations and
the needs of students in their particular classrooms. The writers have included references to a variety
of texts. These texts will be used to strengthen students’ own ability to use language as an effective
tool for thought, expression, and communication. They should not be used as a source of ready-made
grammar exercises, out of the context of the students’ own work.

Teachers meet with the school librarian to plan strategies and materials for the research components
of this course. The school Library/Resource Centre is a valuable instructional/learning resource.

Teachers read the Individual Educational Plans of students and adapt the course according to
suggested strategies. Teachers also plan and co-ordinate activities with the person responsible for
Special Education, so that help may be offered to students.

Teachers consider how to establish a safe, collaborative environment in the classroom.

The writers chose the novel Lord of the Flies because it is a rich source of themes and poetic style.
The writers assumed that many schools would already have class sets of this novel. In their
independent reading, students will be reading three books, probably current and engaging ones. If the
teacher decides not to use Lord of the Flies, he/she chooses another novel with a poetic style for this
unit. Alex Garland’s novel The Beach is a reworking of Lord of the Flies with a group of males and
females on a beach in Thailand. Teachers should consider whether the material is too “adult” for
their students. Ideally, it would also be Canadian, current, engaging for students, and free of
censorship issues. A few novels come to mind: Janette Turner Hospital’s Tiger in the Tiger Pit, Nino
Ricci’s Lives of the Saints; however, the writers have not taught these to Grade 10 students. Through
the independent reading program, students and their teachers explore current novels and identify ones
that would be suitable for an integrated poetry and novel unit.
For this unit, teachers need to decide how to move the class through the novel. Some teachers may
ask students to read the entire novel before the class study begins. Other teachers may ask their
students to read a chapter a day. The writers have chosen to have students read a chapter a day.
Teachers need to be aware that Subtask 6: Stand and Deliver and Subtask 7: Writing “Thematic”
Poetry are interwoven, not consecutive. After the oral chapter presentations in class, students write
poems inspired by the topics highlighted by the students, where time permits.

The Essay Verification Engine or EVE is software to detect plagiarism. It is available at
www.canexus.com.

Prior Knowledge Required

Students will have developed knowledge/understanding, thinking, communication, and application skills
during Grade 1-9, and will have achieved at least Level One on the Achievement Chart for English in The
Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, English.

Unit 1 - Page 3 English - Academic

Task Summary

As part of the introduction to the course, students read and discuss the course outline and expectations,
and complete diagnostic assessments in language, reading, and writing. These include a speech, an
informal essay about their career as a reader, and a letter to the teacher describing their personal goals for
the course. After an introduction to the Independent Reading component of the course, they choose a
book for their independent reading connected to the theme “Beauty and the Beast” in preparation for Unit
Five. Students begin a reading response journal, and conference with their teacher.
Students explore the similarities and differences between poetry and prose in short works and in a series
of linked poems and chapters in the novel Lord of the Flies. For the last eight chapters of the novel,
students present their understanding of topics and themes of their chapter in an oral presentation to the
class. They present and explain topic webs, demonstrate the poetic aspects of the writer’s style by
shaping a found poem from the text, and link a modern song to the chapter. As well, they write poems
connected to the themes of the chapters. Using computers, they prepare an anthology of their own poems
and dialogues, with a title page and an introduction. After the presentations, students write a comparison
essay.

Culminating Activity

Students produce an anthology of poems and dialogue demonstrating a sophisticated understanding of
literary forms and style. These finished works reflect revision and proofreading skills learned in this unit.

Resources

Dawe, Robert, Barry Duncan, and Wendy Mathieu. ResourceLines 9/10. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice
Hall Ginn Canada, 1999. ISBN 0-13-012922-4
Dias, Patrick. Making Sense of Poetry: Patterns in the Process. Canada: The Canadian Council of
Teachers of English, 1987. ISBN 0-920472-08-7
Dictionary
Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. USA: Putnam Publishing Group, 1954. ISBN 0-399-50148-7
Hahn, Harley. Harley Hahn’s Internet & Web Golden Directory: Millennium Edition. Berkeley,
California, USA: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0-07-212194-7
Hayhoe, Mike and Stephen Parker. Words Large as Apples. Cambridge, USA: Press Syndicate of the
University of Cambridge, 1988. ISBN 0 521 33731 3

Introducing Shakespeare. ISBN 0-17-606610-1
This text includes activities about Shakespearean language.
Kellow, Brian and John Krisak. Poetry and Language. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd, 1983.
ISBN 0-07-548620-2
Organizes poems and teaching ideas under the following sections: sound, simile, metaphor,
personification, imagery, diction, syntax, mood, tone, irony, form, narrative, descriptive, lyric.
Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies. Inside Poetry. Don Mills, Canada: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
Canada Inc., 1987. ISBN 0-7747-1224-4
An introduction to the study and appreciation of poetry with sample poems and exercises, critical prose,
and thematic groupings of poems with specific questions, projects and activities.
Koechlin, Carol and Sandi Zwaan. Information Power Pack. Markham, Ontario, Canada: Pembroke
Publishers Ltd., 1997. ISBN 1-555138-086-2
This book provides tools to develop information literacy: how to find and organize information, using
technologies and apply thinking skills.
Ministry of Education and Training. The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10: English. Toronto,
Ontario, Canada: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 1999. ISBN 0-7778-8336-8

Unit 1 - Page 4 English - Academic

Mitchell, Scott and Darren Wershler-Henry. Internet Directory 2000: A Canadian Guide. Scarborough,
Ontario, Canada: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., 1999. ISBN 0-13-016419-4

Oxford English Dictionary.

Powell, Brian. Making Poetry. Don Mills, Ontario: Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd., 1973.
ISBN 02-979720-X
The concepts of involvement, relevance, and discovery make this book a useful one for involving
students in writing poetry. Poems by young people are included.
Perrine, Laurence. Sound and Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, Inc., 1963.
LOC 63-13707
Clear explanations of poetic elements with examples, and a section on “Bad Poetry and Good”, “Good
Poetry and Great.”
Saliani, Dom, ed. Poetry Alive: Perspectives. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991.
ISBN 0-7730-5147-3
Sebranek, Patrick, Verne Meyer, and Dave Kemper. Writers Inc.: A Student Handbook for Writing &
Learning. USA: D.C. Health and Company, a Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996. ISBN 0-66-38812-29
Smith, Peter J. The Harcourt Writer’s Handbook. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Harcourt Canada Ltd., 1999.
ISBN 0-03-922309-4
Smith, Peter J. The Harcourt Writer’s Handbook: Teacher’s Resource. Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
Harcourt Canada Limited, 1999. ISBN 0-03-922310-8
Tressler-Lewis. Mastering Effective English. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: The Copp Clark Publishing Co.
Ltd., 1961. (1324)

Subtask 1: The Power of Language

Time: 70 minutes

Description

Students read the course outline and the assessment plans. Students explore the power of language to
affect human situations. After reading and analysing examples of different voices, students write a
speech using a specific voice. Students concentrate on using powerful language.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Language

Specific Expectations

LI3.01D – compare the use of diction and syntax in the work of different authors and explain how these
elements enhance the theme or message (e.g., compare the use of sentence variety in paragraphs by two
different authors; identify examples of archaic diction in literature from any historical period and give
modern-English equivalents);
WR2.04D – select a voice and an appropriate level of language to suit the form, purpose, and audience of
their writing (e.g., use an impersonal voice and formal language in an academic essay; use everyday
vocabulary and colloquial phrasing to engage the interest of an audience of peers);
WR5.03D – assess their facility with the writing process, documenting their use of genres and forms in
personal and assigned writing and identifying goals for writing improvement and growth (e.g., use
samples from their writing folder to demonstrate their growth and achievement in writing; produce and
carry out an action plan to improve their use of language conventions);
LG1.04D – select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety
of informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama).

Unit 1 - Page 5 English - Academic

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher prepares a course outline in accordance with the expectations of the Ministry of
Education, the District School Board and the school. English departments may decide to include a
policy on plagiarism.

In the course sequence, the Book Festival is scheduled for the last weeks of the semester. The teacher
may prefer to hold the event earlier, depending on examination considerations and other factors.

The teacher uses a favourite activity on the first day to establish a collaborative atmosphere.

A list of assignments for this unit and their assessment is provided in the Course Overview. The
teacher will adapt it to suit his/her particular class.

“Learn2Write a Speech” at http://www.learn2.com/06/0694/0694.html suggests the following steps
to write a speech: Step 1, Consider the context; Step 2, Write anything on the topic; Step 3, Turn it
into a speech; Step 4, Estimate the time; Step 5, Polish the introduction; Step 6, Build up the body;
Step 7, The conclusion; Step 8, The edit. These steps could be adapted for this assignment and
referred to in later speech-writing exercises.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Direct Teaching

Read Aloud

Writing To Learn

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually

Students working in pairs
1. The teacher gives the students a course outline and assessment plans and explains both. Students
keep this at the front of their notebook. [For a sample outline, see BLM 1.1-1 – ENG2D Course
Outline.]
2. The teacher tells the students that the first few lessons will focus on the power of language to affect
their lives in a positive way. They will participate in language, reading, and writing activities, and
hand in two assignments. The teacher will assess these assignments to provide a starting point for
their learning. The students will write a letter describing their personal goals for the course.
3. The teacher explains that this lesson focusses on powerful writing, in which powerful words are
combined in an effective way. The teacher provides examples of contrasting voices in short passages.
The teacher asks various students to read each of the passages aloud, experimenting with different
tones and expression. Students describe the voice and analyse what contributes to the voice (word
choice, phrasing, length of sentence, tone). Students make notes on the voice of each passage.
4. The teacher then asks the class to identify situations in life which require a command of powerful
words and speech. Students brainstorm and list situations. The teacher gathers ideas from the class
into a class list on the board.
5. The teacher asks students to choose one situation that interests them. The teacher organizes pairs of
students interested in the same situation. These students decide on different characters speaking in
the chosen situation. The teacher counts down and the pairs of students start improvising in their
roles simultaneously.
6. For homework, students write a short speech for one character, approximately half a page. [The
speech provides the diagnostic assessment in writing.]

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task Rating Scale
The teacher assesses the speeches using a rating scale. [See BLM 1.1-2 – Rating Scale for Written
Speech.]

Unit 1 - Page 6 English - Academic

Adaptations

The teacher may wish to use examples of speeches for this lesson: for example, Martin Luther King’s
“I Have a Dream” speech and John Amagoalik’s “We Must Have Dreams”.

Resources

Barker-Sandbrook, Judith and Neil Graham. Thinking Through the Essay. Canada: Prentice Hall Ginn,
1999. ISBN 0-13-012922-4
Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream”
Crane, Mary, Barbara Fullerton, and Amanda Joseph. SightLines 10. Canada: Prentice Hall, Toronto,
2000. ISBN 0-13-082171-3
John Amagoalik’s “We Must Have Dreams”

Blackline Masters

BLM 1.1-1 – ENG2D Course Outline
BLM 1.1-2 – Rating Scale for Written Speech

Subtask 2: The Power of Reading

Time: 70 minutes

Description

Students read the first sentence of a number of novels and assess the effectiveness of each by analysing
word choice, sentence structure, and intriguing content. Students predict the content of the novels.
Students think back over their personal histories as readers and write personal responses entitled My
Career as a Reader. The teacher introduces the Independent Reading component of the course.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing

Specific Expectations

LI1.01D – describe information, ideas, opinions, and themes in print and electronic texts they have read
during the year from different cultures and historical periods and in a range of genres, including novels,
plays, short stories, poetry, opinion pieces, reports, short essays, full-length non-fiction works,
newspapers, magazines, and reference materials;
LI3.01D – compare the use of diction and syntax in the work of different authors and explain how these
elements enhance the theme or message (e.g., compare the use of sentence variety in paragraphs by two
different authors; identify examples of archaic diction in literature from any historical period and give
modern-English equivalents);
WR2.04D – select a voice and an appropriate level of language to suit the form, purpose, and audience of
their writing (e.g., use an impersonal voice and formal language in an academic essay; use everyday
vocabulary and colloquial phrasing to engage the interest of an audience of peers);
WR5.05D – use parts of speech correctly, including the infinitive and the gerund.

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher may wish to make up a First Sentence of Novels exercise using first sentences from
novels recommended for independent reading during the first unit.

Unit 1 - Page 7 English - Academic

The word “career” in the reading assignment is a prompt which has generated excellent student
response over time. Words such as “history” or “autobiography” do not elicit the same type of
writing. The surprise and importance of the word "career" seems to trigger a strong response in most
students. Even students who do not read frequently can write about their reasons for not reading with
emotional impact.

After assessing the individual speeches and personal responses, the teacher analyses the strengths
and weaknesses of the class. With the use of the Grade 10 English Grammar Expectations Summary,
the teacher decides what lessons need to be taught and when. [See BLM 1.2-3.] The teacher develops
the necessary lessons, using the sample lessons as a guide. [See BLM 1.2-4.]

The teacher works closely with the teacher/librarian to select books at an appropriate reading level
for the students for the Independent Reading component. The teacher and the librarian contribute
suggestions to the first draft of the Suggested Books for Independent Reading, Grade 10. At the end
of each course, the students suggest additional books with written recommendations for the booklist.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Reading Aloud

Response Journal

Collaborative/Co-operative Learning

Students working as a whole class

Students working in small groups

Students working individually
1. Students hand in the speech written for Subtask 1.
2. The teacher provides the students with the first sentence of a number of novels. [See BLM 1.2-1 –
First Sentences of Novels.] In groups, the students read each one aloud, describe the voice and tone,
assess the effectiveness of the sentence, and predict what the novel might be about. They make brief
notes for each sentence. The groups decide which sentence is the most intriguing one, and explain
their choice to the class.
3. The teacher introduces the Independent Reading component of the course, by telling the students that
they will choose three books connected thematically to the three units of the course to read
independently during this course: one fiction, one non-fiction, and one of their own choice. At the
end of the course, students will present their books at a Book Festival. The teacher provides a
package of materials for the Independent Reading program:
(1) the Independent Reading Assignment BLM 1.2-6;
(2) Suggested Books BLM 1.2-2;
(3) Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component One: Reading Response Journals BLM 1.2-7;
(4) Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Two: Best Reading Journal BLM 1.2-8;
(5) Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Three: Book Review BLM 1.2-9;
(6) Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Four: Book Talk BLM 1.2-10;
(7) Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Five: Media Display BLM 1.2-11;
(8) Rubric for Personal Response to Text BLM 1.2-12;
(9) Criteria for the Book Festival Components - Grades 9-10, English BLM 1.2-13.
The teacher explains the Independent Reading Assignment and the booklist. The other assignment
sheets can be explained in Units 4 and 5. The package of materials should be kept in a separate
section of the students’ notebook, devoted to reading.
4. The teacher comments that the time which teenagers used to use for leisure reading may nowadays be
used for watching television, using a computer, or working at an after-school job. The teacher points
out that effective reading is still an important skill for life, as well as an enjoyable hobby and that
people need to reserve time to read. Some class time will be planned for reading, but students must
also use time outside of class to read. The teacher asks students when and where they find time to
read now. Where could they fit in more time for reading?

Unit 1 - Page 8 English - Academic

5. The teacher comments that all students have been reading since they were very young. The students
volunteer answers to questions such as the following: How did you learn to read? What was your
favourite book when you were young? Did you go through a stage of only reading one kind of book?
What is your favorite book which you have read recently?
6. The teacher assigns a personal response entitled My Career as a Reader. Some students may become
confused about this topic, but the teacher must insist: “Yes, you have had a career as a reader.” The
teacher encourages students to write at least a page, describing their experiences as a reader. Students
hand this in at the end of class. [This assignment provides a diagnostic assessment for reading.]

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task Anecdotal Record

Students write personal responses entitled “My Career as a Reader.” The teacher uses them as
diagnostic assessment in reading by keeping an anecdotal record of information and observations.
The teacher writes encouraging comments on the papers.

The teacher assesses the students’ strengths and needs as writers and readers through the written
speeches of Subtask 2 and the personal responses, and plans lessons to improve their skills.

Adaptations

Students who have difficulty writing may prefer to explain their careers as readers to the teacher in a
personal conference, or record their personal responses on an audiotape recorder.

The students’ IEPs may reveal strategies to adapt the independent reading unit for certain students.
For example, audiotapes of books may be used to assist students with reading difficulties. ESL
students may need extra time and support to help with the reading.

Resources

First Lines
http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/jad 22/
Reader’s Robot
http://www.tnrdlib.bc.ca/rr.html
Librarians and fellow readers recommend books sorted according to genre: mystery, western, historical
fiction, romance, sports, humour, African-American, literary, by and about Canadians, and young adult
(14-16).

Blackline Masters

BLM 1.2-1 – First Sentences of Novels
Ten sentences provide contrasting examples for students to analyse for word choice, sentence structure,
and voice.
BLM 1.2-2 – Suggested Books for Independent Reading
BLM 1.2-3 – Grade 10 English Grammar Expectations Summary
BLM 1.2-4 – Sample Lesson on the Gerund
BLM 1.2-5 – Sample Lesson on Stage Direction Terms
BLM 1.2-6 – Independent Reading Assignment
BLM 1.2-7 – Book Festival Component One: Reading Response Journals
BLM 1.2-8 – Book Festival Component Two: Best Piece of Writing from the Reading Response Journal
BLM 1.2-9 – Book Festival Component Three: Book Review
BLM 1.2-10 – Book Festival Component Four: Book Talk
BLM 1.2-11 – Book Festival Component Five: Media Display
BLM 1.2-12 – Rubric for Personal Response to Text
BLM 1.2-13 – Criteria for the Book Festival Components – Grades 9-10, English

Unit 1 - Page 9 English - Academic

Subtask 3: The Power of Goal-Setting

Time: 70 minutes

Description

Students write a letter to the teacher, describing their goals for the course. The students use the ARRRP
Approach (Add, Rearrange, Remove, Rewrite, Proofread) and the Grade 10 Editing and Revising
Checklist to improve their first writing assignment, and hand the second draft in for assessment. Students
then choose a book for their independent reading connected to the theme of Unit 1. Students maintain a
weekly Independent Reading response journal throughout the course, which will be formatively assessed.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing

Overall Expectations

LIV.01D - read and demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational texts, both
contemporary and from historical periods;
WRV.03D - use a variety of organizational techniques to present ideas and information logically and
coherently in written work;
WRV.04D - revise their written work, independently and collaboratively, with a focus on support for
ideas and opinions, accuracy, clarity, coherence, and effective use of stylistic devices;
WRV.05D - edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support of
print and electronic resources when appropriate.

Specific Expectations

LI1.01D - describe information, ideas, opinions, and themes in print and electronic texts they have read
during the year from different cultures and historical periods and in a range of genres, including novels,
plays, short stories, poetry, opinion pieces, reports, short essays, full-length non-fiction works,
newspapers, magazines, and reference materials;
LI1.05D - analyse information, ideas, and elements in texts and synthesize and communicate their
findings (e.g., read a biography and make a speech about the person to the class; create a fictitious
newspaper report about the events and issues in a novel or short story).

Subtask Planning Notes

One of the difficulties in teaching writing is ensuring that students apply what they have learned from
one assignment to another. Teachers sometimes find themselves writing the same comments, time
after time, on the same students’ work. Using one laminated Grade 10 Editing and Revising Checklist
with colourful stickers to show areas needing improvement, the teacher can “flag” for the student
areas to watch for on future assignments. The checklist is used by the student to edit and revise each
written assignment, and handed in with each assignment. The teacher adds stickers to those items
missed by the students’ editing process, and removes stickers from items which have been improved.
The goal of the students is to have no stickers on the checklist; in other words, their editing and
revising process is exemplary. Students may use this checklist for their final examination.

To prepare for this, the teacher photocopies the checklist on coloured paper so that students can
locate it easily, then laminates it so that it can be used all semester. The teacher places a white label
with the student’s name on it at the top of the page. Small, attractive stickers will indicate what items
need more work. Different stickers can be used for each assignment.

Unit 1 - Page 10 English - Academic

The teacher may use a separate checklist for each assignment, but this does not give the carryover of
the laminated page with stickers. [Note: Using washable markers may seem like a good idea, but the
ink smears and rubs off the laminated pages.]

A variation is to prepare a checklist with approximately ten columns of boxes for checking. Each
assignment could be checked off in a separate column.

The teacher decides how much time can be reserved for independent reading during class. Some
teachers use the first 10-15 minutes of class for independent reading and reading conferences. Other
teachers like to devote a particular day to reading. Some classes may be able to flourish with little
time in class spent reading. However, there are advantages to seeing the students reading the books,
and maintaining regular contact with individual students and their progress.

Some teachers may move quietly from student to student, having conferences, as the rest of the
students read. Other teachers may prefer to have individual students come to their desk to talk. It is
important not to disturb the reading of other students.

During the first three units, the teacher holds reading conferences with individual students during
reading time. The conversations should involve questions about the student as a reader, as well as the
book. Most students are interested in themselves as readers and are willing to talk about their reading
habits. Possible questions are the following: Where and when do you read? What helps or hinders
you as a reader? Why did you choose this book? Do you know anyone who has read this book? Have
you read other books by this author? When is your best time to read? Are you enjoying the writing
style? Are you finding anything difficult about this book? Are any of the characters like you? Would
you encourage other people to read this book? Were there passages you did not understand? Could
you easily describe the main ideas to someone who had not read the book?

At the beginning of the independent reading, the teacher calls or sends a letter to the parent/guardian,
explaining the independent reading program and asking for them to encourage their teenager during
the course.

The teacher needs to keep a record of books selected by the students, their reading progress, and the
ideas discussed in the reading conferences.

Students submit their Independent Reading response journal to the teacher weekly. The teacher
provides descriptive feedback to ensure that students are meeting the criteria described on BLM 1.3-4
– Response Journal - Reading for Meaning.

When students have finished reading each book, they submit their reading response journal and
complete a conference with their teacher.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Direct Teaching

Metacognitive Reflection

Writing Process

Students working individually

Students working as a whole class
1. The teacher describes to the students briefly what strengths and needs of the class appeared in the
initial assessments, and what lessons will be taught as a result. The crucial factor in the learning is
the motivation of each student. During the course, all students can increase their knowledge and
understanding and develop their skills if they set their goals to do so. For homework, the students
write a short letter to the teacher, introducing themselves and describing their goals for the course.
2. The teacher returns the initial assessments to the students. They read over the rating scale and
comments.
3. The teacher reviews the stages in the writing process, and emphasizes that editing and revising are
important stages for improving one's final product. The teacher gives the students The ARRRP
Approach and a Grade 10 Editing and Revising Checklist, two strategies for success, and explains

Unit 1 - Page 11 English - Academic

how to use both to improve their writing. Students use the ARRRP Approach and the checklist to edit
and revise their speech, to be handed in for assessment. The teacher gives the students approximately
15 minutes to begin the editing and revising process in class. Those who are not finished finish the
second draft for homework. The teacher circulates to help students with the process. [See BLM 1.3-1
– Grade 10 Editing and Revising Checklist and BLM 1.3-2 – The ARRRP Approach.]
4. The teacher asks the students to hand in their second draft with the original and the rating scale
stapled to it.
5. The teacher tells the class that they will be reading a novel and poems on the theme of “Beauty and
the Beast” and reading an independent book on the theme. The teacher asks the class the following
questions:
a) What is the story of “Beauty and the Beast”?
b) Who has seen the cartoon version?
c) Who has seen the musical version?
d) Who has read the story?
e) Why is this story so popular, in your opinion?
f) What connotations does the word “beauty” have?
g) What connotations does the word “beast” have?
h) Where can we find beauty in the natural world, among people, in the arts?
i) Where can we find “the beast” in the natural world, among people, in the arts?
[See BLM 1.3-3 for a summary of the original story. See web sites for more information.]
6. The teacher asks the students to think what aspect of the theme interests them the most, and to try to
find a book on that topic. The teacher may give the students a list of recommendations, prepared by
the teacher and the librarian. The teacher and the students go to the library to choose a book for
independent reading. [See BLM 1.2-2 (b) for a sample booklist.]
7. Near the end of the class, the teacher informs student that they will maintain a reader response
journal as they read their independently chosen book. The teacher hands out Response Journal:
Reading For Meaning (BLM 1.3-4) and discusses the prompts for response. Students should
understand that the reader response should be an integration of two elements, their opinion, and the
text. The teacher should use BLM 1.3-5 to give students a visual representation of this concept.
Students write one response each week and submit these responses for assessment on a regular basis.
8. Near the end of the class, the teacher reminds the students of their homework: finish their speech,
write a letter to the teacher, and if possible begin reading their book. The independent reading book
should be brought to class every day.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Self-Assessment

Performance Task

Rating Scale

Anecdotal Record

The students describe their goals for the course in a letter to the teacher. The teacher keeps the letter
as an anecdotal record.

The students edit and revise their first assignment, using the ARRRP Approach and the Grade 10
Editing and Revising Checklist. The teacher assesses the second draft using the rating scale. [See
BLM 1.1-2.] The teacher assesses the reader response journal, using the Rubric for Personal
Response to Text (BLM 1.2-12).

Unit 1 - Page 12 English - Academic

Adaptations

The teacher-librarian selects a variety of appealing books with the needs of students with special
needs in mind; for example, audiotaped books for students with visual problems or reading
difficulties.

Early in the course, the teacher reads the Ontario Student Record of each student.

Resources

The Annotated Beauty and the Beast
http://http:members.aol.com/surlalune/frytales/banbeast/
A 12-page annotated version of the original French tale.
Once Upon a Time There Was Beauty and the Beast
http://www.cinematographer.com/magazine/
A very short version of the tale, as well as a description of Jean Cocteau’s filmed version.

Blackline Masters

BLM 1.3-1 – Grade 10 Editing and Revising Checklist
BLM 1.3-2 – The ARRRP Approach
BLM 1.3-2 (b) – Suggested Grade 10 Booklist
BLM 1.3-3 – Beauty and the Beast
BLM 1.3-4 – Response Journal: Reading for Meaning
BLM 1.3-5 – Notes for Personal Response Writing

Subtask 4: Introduction to Poetic and Narrative Forms

Time: 140 minutes

Description

The students explore the themes of “beauty” and “the beast” through examples and group discussion.
Students demonstrate their understanding of the differences and the commonalities between poetry and
prose, by writing the different forms. They define poetic terms and identify the use of poetic elements
such as imagery, sound devices, and punctuation to convey complex ideas. The teacher describes the
integrated structure of the unit, and the culminating tasks of presenting a chapter to the class and writing
poems and dialogues for the creative writing anthology.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LIV.02D - demonstrate an understanding of the elements of a range of literary and informational forms,
with a focus on novels, poems, plays, and opinion pieces;
LIV.03D - identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and
informational texts;
WRV.02D - identify the literary and informational forms suited to various purposes and audiences and
use the forms appropriately in their own writing, with an emphasis on adopting a suitable voice.

Unit 1 - Page 13 English - Academic

Specific Expectations

LI2.02D - use knowledge of elements of poetry, such as stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm, punctuation, free
verse, imagery, and sound devices, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., write a lyric
or ballad in rhyming couplets; present a choral reading of a poem, emphasizing onomatopoeia);
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem).

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher may need to consult some sources on aesthetics to prepare for this lesson. The teacher
could talk to the art or music teacher or use the Internet to find different criteria for defining beauty.

Unit 3: Diversity examines perceptions and how culture influences our ideas.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Choral Reading

Direct Teaching

Guided Writing

Students working as a whole class

Students working in small groups
1. The teacher collects the speeches and the letters to the teacher. (After class, the teacher assesses the
speeches for improvement, and records a numerical mark. The teacher reads the letters, makes a copy
of each one, and returns the originals to the students.)
2. The teacher gives the students time to read their independent reading book (approximately 10-15
minutes). [This becomes part of the class routine. Teaching instructions will not repeat this.]
3. The teacher reviews the ideas about “beauty” and “the beast” from the previous class, then asks the
students to suggest criteria for defining “beauty”. (Possible criteria for beauty are balance, novelty,
surprise, ambiguity, imitation, representation.) The teacher asks the students if these criteria depend
on one's culture. Students suggest examples to fit each criterion. The students record these ideas in
their notes. Then the teacher asks the students if “the beast” is the opposite of “beauty”? If not, how
can “beast” be defined? What criteria can be used? What examples from the world would fit each
criteria? The students record these ideas in their notes.
4. The teacher comments that sometimes, apparently beastly creatures can be beautiful. The teacher
gives the students each a copy of “Lone Dog” (
Poetry Alive: Perspectives) and “Bodger” (The
Incredible Journey, pp. 9-11) and asks them to form small groups. The teacher asks the students to
read the poem and prose passage aloud and answer the following questions in writing, after a group
discussion:
a) Is the Dog in the poem a “beauty” or a “beast”? Or both?
b) Is Bodger a “beauty” or a “beast”? Or both? [The teacher introduces the term paradox.]
c) To what extent is “beauty in the eye of the beholder”?
d) What similarities between the poem and the prose passage do you notice?
5. Then the teacher leads the students in a discussion about the differences between poetry and prose.
After examining the surface differences such as typography, the teacher points out other differences
such as the use of imagery, connotation, and form. The teacher asks the students to underline and
label examples of imagery, connotation, and any other poetic devices they notice in the poem and the
prose. The students make a note on the differences between poetry and prose. [See resource texts,
such as
ResourceLines 9/10, for definitions of terms.]
6. The teacher explains the homework assignment: write a short poem and a prose passage about an
animal. [This is a first draft of a portion of their Creative Writing Anthology, the culminating activity
for the unit.]

Unit 1 - Page 14 English - Academic

7. To extend the theme further, the class performs a choral reading of “The Healing from the
Beautyway Chant” (from
Poetry Alive: Perspectivies – see Resources). The teacher reviews the
terms contrast, mood, and repetition. Students find examples of contrast, words that create mood, and
repetition in this poem and explain the effects of these poetic devices. Students answer the following
questions:
a) Why would the poet include this contrast in the poem?
b) Does the repetition of the word “beauty” add to or detract from the poetic effect for you?
[The teacher should mention that this is a translation, and some of the poetic effect may have been
difficult to translate.]
8. The teacher makes the point that although there are differences, there are also commonalities
between poetry and prose. The teacher demonstrates this by having students read the prose poem by
Jim Morrison “Listen, Real Poetry Doesn’t Say Anything” (
Poetry Alive: Perspectives). To further
emphasize the point, the teacher asks students in groups to write out the passage as a poem on chart
paper, emphasizing what they consider the important ideas through the manipulation of line length,
pauses, and punctuation. When these are displayed in the class, the teacher should have students read
a number of these to show students that manipulating the length of the line can change emphasis,
rhythm, even meaning in a poem. Final question: What is Morrison saying about the nature of
poetry?
9. [If time is short, the next two steps are optional.] The teacher comments that the novel
Lord of the
Flies is a prose work rich with poetic possibility. To demonstrate this fusion, the teacher suggests to
the students that consciously or not, Golding, in his list of chapter titles, has written a prose poem.
The teacher has the students in groups attempt a choral reading of these titles, again emphasizing
what they consider to be the key ideas through their use of voice, rhythm, and tone. [Possible
question: Is this a “found poem” or an intentional work by Golding?]
10. The students, still in groups, use the chapter titles to predict the events and the themes of the novel.
They record their predictions.
11. The teacher gives the student a schedule for reading the novel. Students should read most of the
novel outside of class. Homework is to read Chapter One of the novel.

Adaptations

Examples from different cultures and different time periods could be examined to heighten students’
understanding of aesthetics and their judgment about what is beautiful. For example, Renaissance
artists portrayed beautiful women in their paintings who would be considered “fat” by today’s
standards.

Students with reading difficulties may use a taped version of the novel.

Resources

Burnford, Sheila.
The Incredible Journey. Toronto: PaperJacks, 1973.
Saliani, Dom, ed.
Poetry Alive: Perspectives. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991.

Unit 1 - Page 15 English - Academic

Subtask 5: Guided Reading of Four Chapters Using Poetry/Dialogue Responses

Time: 420 minutes

Description

Students read the chapters prior to class discussion. Through the reading of poems connected to
Golding’s evocative chapter titles, they explore the thematic focus of each chapter, and Golding’s use of
symbol, imagery, archetype, and myth.
Students examine the author’s skills in the use of dialogue in the novel to reveal character, to develop
plot through conflict, set tone, and create suspense. They demonstrate their knowledge of the writing
conventions of this form, and their ability to interpret character and situation through the writing of
imaginative dialogue set within the context of the novel. This dialogue is used as part of the creative
writing anthology.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LIV.02D - demonstrate an understanding of the elements of a range of literary and informational forms,
with a focus on novels, poems, plays, and opinion pieces;
LIV.03D - identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and
informational texts;
WRV.02D - identify the literary and informational forms suited to various purposes and audiences and
use the forms appropriately in their own writing, with an emphasis on adopting a suitable voice;
WRV.05D - edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support of
print and electronic resources when appropriate.

Specific Expectations

LI1.04D - use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support
interpretations (e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short
story; select quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);
LI1.05D - analyse information, ideas, and elements in texts and synthesize and communicate their
findings (e.g., read a biography and make a speech about the person to the class; create a fictitious
newspaper report about the events and issues in a novel or short story);
LI2.01D - use knowledge of elements of the novel, such as plot and subplot, characterization, setting,
conflict, theme, point of view, and cultural and historical contexts, to understand and interpret examples
of the genre (e.g., rewrite a passage from a novel, adopting the point of view of another character; use
knowledge of the cultural or historical context of a novel to understand the language and events in the
work);
LI2.02D - use knowledge of elements of poetry, such as stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm, punctuation, free
verse, imagery, and sound devices, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., write a lyric
or ballad in rhyming couplets; present a choral reading of a poem, emphasizing onomatopoeia);
LI3.02D - explain how authors use stylistic devices, such as allusion, contrast, hyperbole,
understatement, oxymoron, irony, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing (e.g., explain
the effects of the contradictory emotions or qualities expressed in an oxymoron; compare the poetic
devices used in two poems on a similar theme; do research to understand a mythical allusion in a piece of
literature or an advertisement and explain how the allusion enhances the theme or message in the text);
LI3.03D - explain how authors and editors use design elements to help communicate ideas (e.g., explain
how typography and layout contribute to meaning in a concrete poem; prepare a title page and
bibliography template for an academic paper and defend their design decisions; create electronic links
showing where and how to find related material);

Unit 1 - Page 16 English - Academic

LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama).

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher should address the issue of commercial studies of a novel, since some students buy
commercial synopses and read them instead of the novel. Students need to be aware of the pitfalls of
this approach. Resources on the Internet also need to be addressed.

The teacher reads the poem and prose writing on an animal and writes encouraging comments on
them for use of effective diction, poetic devices, and other poetic elements. The teacher returns these
to the students who keep them as first drafts for their Creative Writing Anthology.

The teacher reads the dialogues and provides a formative assessment using the Rubric for Dialogue.
These dialogues become drafts of another item for the Creative Writing Anthology.

The teacher may wish to use Ted Hughes’ reading of “The Tyger” available on the audiotape
By
Heart: 101 Poems to Remember.

Teachers remind students to read most of the novel to be ready for the class study.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Direct Teaching

Open-Ended Questions

Guided Writing

Homework

Students working as a whole group

Students working individually

Students working in small groups

Chapter One: The Sound of the Shell

1. The teacher returns the letters to the teacher and collects the poem and prose writing assignment from
the students.
2. Students read an excerpt from the poem “The Key of the Kingdom” (
Poetry Alive: Perspectives) as a
way of identifying and exploring one of the themes in the chapter.
3. The teacher leads a discussion on the ideas about childhood found in the poem.
a) What is the “key” to the kingdom that children have and adults do not have?
b) When do children lose “the key to the kingdom”?
c) Why do children lose the key, in your opinion?
The poem provides an opportunity to review the concept of symbol and how it reveals theme through
a discussion of the central symbol of the key.
4. Students write answers to questions about Chapter One of the novel, connected to these ideas:
a) Do the boys in the novel have this key?
b) Are there any hints that they might lose it?
c) What does the conch do? What does it represent or symbolize?
d) Are there any similarities between what the conch and the key represent?
5. The teacher highlights key passages in Chapter One in class, particularly details about the setting,
characters, their interactions(dialogue between Ralph and Piggy), and their symbolic actions (notice
the candle buds). Students write notes on these details.
6. For homework, students read Chapter Two and find a symbol. To encourage students to do this, the
teacher informs them that there will be a response to Chapter Two the following day.

Unit 1 - Page 17 English - Academic

Chapter Two: Fire on the Mountain

1. The teacher asks students to suggest symbols which they found in Chapter Two, and to explain their
interpretation of their meaning. The teacher mentions that symbols may gather meaning through a
novel, and encourages students to watch for this.
2. If students have not mentioned fire, the teacher comments that fire is a common symbol in literature.
Students identify connotations of the symbol. To further enrich this discussion, the teacher reads the
myth of Prometheus, one of the oldest “fire” stories. The teacher introduces the term archetype. After
the reading, the students debate and write answers to the following questions:
a) Why was Prometheus punished?
b) To what extent is Prometheus an archetypal figure?
c) What does fire symbolize in the story?
d) Would the boys on the island need fire? Why?
e) What does the fire symbolize in the story at this point?
2. The teacher reviews the chapter, by exploring the tensions building between Jack and Piggy. Why
does Jack seem to dislike Piggy? Why is Piggy frightened while Jack is not?
3. The teacher reviews the idea of characterization and points out that Golding uses dialogue as his
principal means of expressing and developing character, creating tension and suspense. The students
answer the question: Why is dialogue an effective means of characterization? The students analyse
the conversation between Jack and Ralph by writing answers to the following questions:
a) What does Jack say that clearly indicates an important aspect of his character? What
characteristic is revealed?
b) What does Ralph say that clearly indicates an aspect of his character? What is revealed?
c) What excerpt from the conversation shows the gap opening between the two boys?
d) Why is this happening?
4. Using the conversation as a model, the teacher reviews the rules of writing direct speech in a prose
passage; the students record these rules. [This mini-lesson addresses punctuation and use of the
paragraph particularly.]
5. The teacher assigns the following writing task to be completed in class: Write a conversation
between Piggy and Ralph after the fire has burnt out. The boy with the birthmark on his face is still
missing. Their dialogue should show an understanding of the characters and the situation. The
teacher collects these at the end of class.
6. For homework, students read Chapter Three.

Chapter Three: Huts on the Beach

1. The teacher distributes and explains the Rubric for Dialogue, returns their dialogues written the day
before, and asks students to assess each other's dialogues in pairs. Then the teacher collects the
dialogue assignments. [The teacher provides a formative assessment using BLM 1.5-1 – Rubric for
Dialogue.]
2. This may be an appropriate moment to give the students the assignment for the Creative Writing
Anthology and the Rubric for Poetry. [See BLM 1.5-2 and BLM 1.5-3 – Rubric for Poetry
Anthology.] The teacher explains the assignment and the Rubric for Poetry Anthology, and tells
students that they will have time to focus on this task after they have finished reading the novel.
3. The teacher reads aloud the poem “The Lamb” by William Blake as an expression of the “beautiful.”
The teacher asks the class the question: Why does Blake consider the lamb delightful? Are the
children on the island like the lamb?
4. To establish the contrast, the teacher reads aloud the poem “The Tyger” by William Blake to
introduce the idea of the beast. Then the class could read the poem as a chant. Students work in small
groups to discuss and answer these questions in their notes.
a) What concept of the tiger does the poem convey?
b) What are the images that convey this sense of the tiger?

Unit 1 - Page 18 English - Academic

c) What effect does the rhythm of the poem have on the reader’s sense of the tiger?
d) How important is this rhythm to the poem?
e) What is the rhyme scheme?
f) What effect does the rhyme scheme convey?
g) What is the effect of the repeated questions?
h) What idea about the tiger does the phrase “thy fearful symmetry” convey?
The teacher facilitates a sharing of the students’ ideas.
5. In this chapter, the students focus on the two activities that Jack and Ralph pursue: hunting and hutbuilding.
They identify the important differences between the two boys that led them down different
paths by writing answers to the following questions:
a) What characteristics make Jack take to hunting so naturally?
b) What makes Ralph fall naturally into building huts on the beach?
c) If a “tiger” is an appropriate symbol for Jack in this chapter, what might be an appropriate
symbol for Ralph? A lamb?
Near the end of the class, the teacher invites students to share their ideas.
6. After the teacher explains the comparative framework, students make a chart comparing Jack and
Ralph, using the Framework for Comparative Inquiry [See BLM 1.5-5].
7. The teacher checks the students' frameworks.
8. The teacher demonstrates, using an overhead, how to use the framework to develop a comparison
essay.
9. The teacher gives students a sample comparison essay on Jack and Ralph.
10. For homework, students read Chapter Four.

Chapter Four: Painted Faces and Long Hair

1. The teacher informs the students that Chapter Four will be used as a model for an assignment on
theme which groups of students will be presenting to the class for Chapters Five to Twelve.
2. The teacher reviews with students the concept of theme. A useful way would be to distinguish
between the term topic and theme, a distinction that many students have difficulty making. The
teacher informs the students that topic describes the general idea in the text while the theme is “What
the text says about the topic”. For example, the topic of the poem “The Key of the Kingdom” is
childhood; the theme (in one sense) might be “that childhood is a time of limitless possibilities.”
3. The teacher informs the students that the chapters in
Lord of the Flies contain many interwoven
themes or ideas. Chapter Four is a good example of this because it contains many elements that
convey clear ideas/themes such as THE TITLE, CHARACTERS, SPEECH, and EVENTS. As the
lesson progresses, students write clear notes on the following questions.
A. THE TITLE: Painted Faces and Long Hair.
a) What topic is suggested by the title?
b) What idea about the topic does the text suggest?
B. CHARACTERS: The teacher suggests a second source of ideas in the chapters are the characters,
and what the characters represent.
a) What does Piggy represent in Chapter Four (and in previous chapters)?
b) What do other characters represent: Jack, Ralph, Roger?
C. SPEECH: The teacher suggests that ideas are often conveyed by words spoken by characters. An
obvious line is the chant of the hunters: “Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in.”
a) What does this chant convey about the change in the boys?
b) What other important line of dialogue conveys ideas? What might these ideas be?

Unit 1 - Page 19 English - Academic

D. EVENTS: The teacher suggests finally that important events also convey important themes.
Possible questions:
a) What does each of these important events represent to the reader: the boys’ first kill, the fire
on the mountain going out?
b) What other important event in the chapter conveys a significant idea and what is the idea?
4. At the end of the discussions, the teacher models a Topic Web to show connections between the
different ideas in Chapter Four. The teacher encourages the students to make thematic statements
drawn from the topics by practising writing well-organized paragraphs which identify the theme in
the topic sentence, the evidence in the middle sentences, and restate the theme in the concluding
sentence. (Topics for Chapter Four might include Hunter, Leadership, Power Struggle, Evil,
Goodness, Bullying, Passivity, Victim.)
5. The teacher informs the students that in their group assignment they will be asked to identify
excerpts from Golding’s prose that contain poetic features. To provide instruction for this element in
the group assignment, the teacher selects the sentence “At midday, the illusions merged into the sky
and there the sun gazed down like an angry eye.” On the board, the teacher write the words as a
poem; for example:
At midday
The illusions merged into the sky
And there
The sun gazed down
Like an angry eye.
The teacher reviews the definitions of personification and simile and asks students to find an
example of each in the found poem. The teacher points out that rhyme is revealed by writing the
words in this format.
6. For homework, the teacher asks students to choose a short excerpt from the chapter (three to five
sentences) that demonstrates the poetic qualities of Golding’s prose, and to justify their choice by
reference to some of the poetic terms learned in the unit such as rhythm, imagery, symbol, and
personification. The students demonstrate their understanding of these elements by writing the
excerpt using a “poetic” typography.
7. The teacher informs the class that the final element of the group assignment is the song or poem with
a theme that is connected to one of the themes/topics in the chapter. The teacher demonstrates this
connection by playing a song or reading a poem that connects to one of the themes in Chapter Four.
Students write a well constructed one-paragraph answer that describes the connection between the
song or poem and Chapter Four. The teacher informs them that the paragraph should have a topic
sentence that describes the connection, references to both texts that support the topic sentence, and a
concluding sentence. When students have written these, the teacher asks for volunteers to read their
paragraphs. The teacher and the class listen and remark upon the expression of theme and the
structure of each paragraph.
8. The teacher organizes the groups for the last eight chapters. The teacher hands out and explains the
assignment and the rubric. [See BLM 1.5-4 – Group Assignment:
Lord of the Flies and 1.5-9 –
Rubric for Oral Presentation of a Chapter.]
9. For homework on the weekend, students need to read as much of the novel as possible, to be ready
for the next week’s lessons and for delivering their own chapter lesson.

Unit 1 - Page 20 English - Academic

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task Rubric

A dialogue between Piggy and Ralph created for Chapter Two is assessed by students and teacher
using the Rubric for Dialogue, revised by students, and handed in as part of the Creative Writing
Anthology. [See BLM 1.5-1 – Rubric for Dialogue.]

Adaptations

Students who find the reading level of this novel challenging may benefit from plot diagrams,
comprehension questions, and other strategies to ensure understanding of the content.

Resources

By Heart: 101 Poems to Remember. Faber Penguin Audiobooks. ISBN 0-14-086749-X
England’s poet laureate Ted Hughes recites “The Tyger” as well as 100 other poems.
Saliani, Dom, ed.
Poetry Alive: Perspectives. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991.

Blackline Masters

BLM 1.5-1 – Rubric for Dialogue
BLM 1.5-2 – Creative Writing Anthology Assignment
BLM 1.5-3 – Rubric for Poetry Anthology
BLM 1.5-4 – Group Assignment:
Lord of the Flies

BLM 1.5-5 – Framework for Comparative Inquiry
BLM 1.5-6 – Rubric for Oral Presentation of a Chapter

Subtask 6: Stand and Deliver

Time: 350 minutes

Description

Groups of students provide their peers with a number of resources that enhance an understanding of a
chapter in an oral presentation. Through their use of a topic web, found poetry, songs, and commentary,
they demonstrate an understanding of the text, particularly the interwoven themes of their chapter and the
poetic nature of Golding’s prose. At the end of the presentations, students write a comparison essay.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LIV.02D - demonstrate an understanding of the elements of a range of literary and informational forms,
with a focus on novels, poems, plays, and opinion pieces;
LIV.03D - identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and
informational texts.

Specific Expectations

LI1.04D - use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support
interpretations (e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short
story; select quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);
LI1.05D - analyse information, ideas, and elements in texts and synthesize and communicate their
findings (e.g., read a biography and make a speech about the person to the class; create a fictitious
newspaper report about the events and issues in a novel or short story);

Unit 1 - Page 21 English - Academic

LI2.01D - use knowledge of elements of the novel, such as plot and subplot, characterization, setting,
conflict, theme, point of view, and cultural and historical contexts, to understand and interpret examples
of the genre (e.g., rewrite a passage from a novel, adopting the point of view of another character; use
knowledge of the cultural or historical context of a novel to understand the language and events in the
work);
LI2.02D - use knowledge of elements of poetry, such as stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm, punctuation, free
verse, imagery, and sound devices, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., write a lyric
or ballad in rhyming couplets; present a choral reading of a poem, emphasizing onomatopoeia);
LI3.01D - compare the use of diction and syntax in the work of different authors and explain how these
elements enhance the theme or message (e.g., compare the use of sentence variety in paragraphs by two
different authors; identify examples of archaic diction in literature from any historical period and give
modern-English equivalents);
LI3.02D - explain how authors use stylistic devices, such as allusion, contrast, hyperbole,
understatement, oxymoron, irony, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing (e.g., explain
the effects of the contradictory emotions or qualities expressed in an oxymoron; compare the poetic
devices used in two poems on a similar theme; do research to understand a mythical allusion in a piece of
literature or an advertisement and explain how the allusion enhances the theme or message in the text);
WR3.03D - use a pattern such as comparison and contrast, cause and effect, or classification to structure
short essays;
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama);
LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice.

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher may decide to show a filmed version of the novel; the most recent version changes the
plot and has the pilot live for a period of time. The school/Board must have an appropriate video
licence before a video can be shown.

The teacher may consider asking the students to write the comparison essay under time constraints as
a practice for examination conditions.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Collaborative/Co-operative Learning

Peer Teaching

Students working in small groups

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually
1. The teacher asks student volunteers to write their examples of poetic prose found in Chapter Four in
poetic form on chart paper. The teacher and students comment on poetic aspects of these found
poems.
2. The teacher reviews with the class the elements of the Group Assignment:
Lord of the Flies and the
Rubric for Oral Presentation of a Chapter. [See BLMs 1.5-4 and 1.5-6.] The teacher establishes a

Unit 1 - Page 22 English - Academic

schedule for presentations and outlines the process for preparing the presentation. A possible
schedule would be to have two presentations during each class, with the remaining time devoted to
writing poetry for the Creative Writing Anthology. The teacher also establishes a schedule for
reading so that the students will have read the chapters that are presented in class.
3. Students use two class periods to prepare their presentation. The teacher circulates to help students,
and to ensure fairness in task distribution in the groups.
4. The scheduled presentations begin. Students write notes on the topic webs, the themes, the found
poem, and the thematic connections between the song or poem and the chapter. After each student
presentation, the teacher and students comment on the positive aspects of the presentation and make
suggestions about areas to improve.
5. After the presentations, students practise their paragraph writing by writing a paragraph about one of
the themes of each chapter. They may also use their time to begin writing a poem (based on one of
the chapter topics). These poems become part of their Creative Writing Anthology.
6. After the final chapter, the teacher presents a lesson to help students reflect on the entire novel and
its themes. The teacher introduces the terms microcosm and macrocosm. The events on the island,
the microcosm, represent the author’s portrayal of events in the actual world, the macrocosm. The
teacher leads a class discussion using the following questions:
a) To what extent do the events in the novel mirror events in the world today? (Current newspapers
will provide a source of parallel situations.)
b) Which characters and events in the novel could be listed under the headings “Beauty” and “the
Beast”?
c) What do you think Golding is saying about “the beast” in life?
d) What do you think Golding is saying about “beauty” in life?
e) Does the poetic style of the novel suit the meaning? In what way?
7. For homework, the teacher asks the students to prepare a short essay on a theme in the novel, using
comparison and contrast to develop the ideas. The teacher reviews the comparative framework. [See
BLM 1.5-5 – Framework for the Comparative Inquiry.] The students use the framework to organize
their ideas. The teacher circulates to check the logic of the students’ choices. The students prepare a
final draft of their work, using editing tools such as the ARRRP Approach and the Grade 10 Editing
and Revising Checklist, and a word processor. The students hand the comparative essays to the
teacher for assessment. [See Rubric for Personal Response to the Text [1.2-12.] This process may
happen concurrently with the poetry writing of the next subtask.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task

Essay

Rubric

Each group of students teaches a lesson on a chapter from the novel using a topic web, a found poem
and a song or poem to highlight themes and the author’s writing style. The presentation is assessed
with a Rubric for Oral Presentation of a Chapter.

Students write a comparison essay which is assessed by the teacher using the Rubric for Personal
Response to the Text.

Adaptations

Students who have reading difficulties may find viewing a filmed version and/or listening to an
audiotape of the book will help.

The teacher should facilitate the formation of groups so that students with weak presentation skills
may work with students who have stronger skills.

Unit 1 - Page 23 English - Academic

Resources

BLM 1.2-12 – Rubric for Personal Response to Text
BLM 1.3-1 – Grade 10 Editing and Revising Checklist
BLM 1.3-2 – The ARRRP Approach
BLM 1.5-4 – Group Assignment:
Lord of the Flies - The elements of the assignment and the evaluation
are described.
BLM 1.5-5 – Framework for Comparative Inquiry

Subtask 7: Writing “Thematic” Poetry

Time: 140 minutes

Description

With the understanding of the congruence of poetry and prose developed in the guided reading of
chapters one to four, students write poems connected to the last eight chapters of the novel and to the
chapter titles in particular. Their poetry demonstrates a knowledge of poetic forms, elements, and devices
learned in Subtask 2. These student poems are used as part of the creative writing anthology.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

WRV.02D - identify the literary and informational forms suited to various purposes and audiences and
use the forms appropriately in their own writing, with an emphasis on adopting a suitable voice;
WRV.04D - revise their written work, independently and collaboratively, with a focus on support for
ideas and opinions, accuracy, clarity, coherence, and effective use of stylistic devices;
WRV.05D - edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support of
print and electronic resources when appropriate.

Specific Expectations

WR2.01D - demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational forms, such as poems,
narratives, comparison-and-contrast and cause-and-effect essays, speeches, and research reports, by using
forms of writing appropriate to different purposes and audiences (e.g., rewrite an episode of a story from
the point of view of a different character; use a formal, objective voice in a short essay; write a speech
for a class debate);
WR4.01D - revise drafts to ensure that ideas are adequately supported by relevant details and facts and to
achieve clarity, unity, and coherence (e.g., reinforce a mood or feeling by elaborating the imagery in a
poem or short story; read a supported opinion piece aloud with a partner or in a small group to check for
coherence and effectiveness; remove redundancies and expand supporting detail in a report);
WR5.04D - edit and proofread their own and others’ writing, correcting errors according to the
requirements for grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation listed below;
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama).

Unit 1 - Page 24 English - Academic

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher who writes poems with the class encourages the students to experiment with poems. The
teacher could show students a rough draft, involve them in editing a poem, and share with them the
judgment involved in shaping a poem.

Teachers develop mini-lessons using their resources for poetry.

Teachers make various anthologies for browsing available to students.

The Internet has a number of interesting sites for poetry. [See Internet Guides in Resource List for
Unit.]

The teacher could keep sample anthologies from students to show the class models of the assignment.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Mini-Lesson Students working individually

Students working as a whole class
1. After the class has completed the novel study, the teacher reviews the Creative Writing assignment,
the Rubric for Dialogue, and the Rubric for Poetry so that the students are reminded of the
expectations of the assignment.
2. The teacher presents mini-lessons on various forms of poetry for the Creative Writing Anthology:
quatrains, free verse, a found poem, a concrete poem. The poems used with each chapter provide a
source of examples, already read in class.
3. The teacher encourages students to revise their poems, paying particular attention to clarity, unity,
and coherence. To demonstrate revision, the teacher takes a rough draft of a poem, and edits and
revises it on the board or an overhead projector. The teacher shows how to eliminate extraneous
words, select powerful words, and play with variations in rhythm, rhyme, line length, and
punctuation. The teacher encourages students to have all elements of the poem contribute to the
theme.
4. The students add these polished poems to their Creative Writing Anthology.

Adaptations

The teacher may decide to offer students who are reluctant to write poetry an alternative of writing
more poetic prose passages in their anthology.

Resources

Various Poetry Anthologies
Pyrowords
http://www.microtec.net/~lamiel
Many genres of poetry presented in a visually interesting way. You may submit your work or collaborate
on interactive works.
Semantic Rhyming Dictionary
http://www.link.cs.cmu.edu/dougb/rhyme-doc.html

Blackline Masters

BLM 1.5-1 – Rubric for Dialogue
BLM 1.5-2 – Creative Writing Anthology Assignment
BLM 1.5-3 – Rubric for Poetry Anthology

Unit 1 - Page 25 English - Academic

Subtask 8: Creative Writing Anthology

Time: 140 minutes

Description

Students produce an anthology of poems and dialogue demonstrating a sophisticated understanding of
literary forms and style. These finished works reflect revision and proofreading skills learned in this unit.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

WRV.02D - identify the literary and informational forms suited to various purposes and audiences and
use the forms appropriately in their own writing, with an emphasis on adopting a suitable voice;
WRV.04D - revise their written work, independently and collaboratively, with a focus on support for
ideas and opinions, accuracy, clarity, coherence, and effective use of stylistic devices;
WRV.05D - edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support of
print and electronic resources when appropriate.

Specific Expectations

WR2.01D - demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational forms, such as poems,
narratives, comparison-and-contrast and cause-and-effect essays, speeches, and research reports, by using
forms of writing appropriate to different purposes and audiences (e.g., rewrite an episode of a story from
the point of view of a different character; use a formal, objective voice in a short essay; write a speech
for a class debate);
WR4.01D - revise drafts to ensure that ideas are adequately supported by relevant details and facts and to
achieve clarity, unity, and coherence (e.g., reinforce a mood or feeling by elaborating the imagery in a
poem or short story; read a supported opinion piece aloud with a partner or in a small group to check for
coherence and effectiveness; remove redundancies and expand supporting detail in a report);
WR4.03D - make constructive suggestions to peers in a writing conference (e.g., identify ways to address
problems of control in writing such as redundancies or inappropriate level of language; create checklists
based on established criteria and use them when discussing a piece of writing);
WR5.02D - select the publication method or vehicle most accessible or appealing to the intended
audience, using technology in a variety of ways where appropriate (e.g., write a letter or e-mail message
to recommend a book to a friend; submit work to a writing contest in the required format; write and
format a concrete poem for the school yearbook);
WR5.04D - edit and proofread their own and others’ writing, correcting errors according to the
requirements for grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation listed below;
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama).

Unit 1 - Page 26 English - Academic

Subtask Planning Notes

The Creative Writing Anthology needs sensitivity on the part of the teacher during assessment. If
some students need more time to produce an appropriate anthology, they should be offered it.

During Subtasks 8 and 9, the teacher can have one-on-one conferences with students about their
independent reading. Students who complete their anthology early can have time to read their
independent reading book, maintain their response journal, or choose their next book.

Students skilled in technology may enjoy creating a Poetry CD. [See BLM 1.8-1.]

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Conferencing

Technology

Students working in pairs

Students working individually
1. The teacher instructs students about the requirements of a title page and provides an example.
2. The teacher provides a sample introduction to an anthology, and describes what the students should
include in their own introductions to their anthology. Students write their introduction. A Sample
Introduction to an Anthology may be found in
Poetry Alive: Perspectives, p. 18.
3. Students read over the dialogue and poems written during the unit and choose examples of each form
for their anthology. Some students may wish to work with a partner in the selection process.
4. In the computer lab, students design an effective title page for their anthology and prepare their work
for publication.
5. The first draft of the anthology is read by a peer editor, using the Rubric for Dialogue and the Rubric
for Poetry Anthology. The peer editors make suggestions for improvement.
6. After considering the suggestions from the writing conference, students prepare a finished copy of
the Creative Writing Anthology and hand it to the teacher for assessment.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task

Self-Assessment

Rubric

The students and the teacher assess the Creative Writing Anthology with the Rubric for Poetry
Anthology and the Rubric for Dialogue.

Adaptations

For enrichment, students with an interest in technology may create a CD of students’ poetry. [See
BLM 1.8-1 – Creating a Poetry CD.]

Students contribute a poem to create a class poetry wall display, either in the classroom or in a more
prominent location in the school or community.

Resources

Saliani, Dom, ed.
Poetry Alive: Perspectives. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991.

Blackline Masters

BLM 1.8-1 – Creating a Poetry CD

Unit 1 - Page 27 English - Academic

BLM 1.1-1

ENG2D Course Outline

COURSE TITLE: Grade 10 Academic English
COURSE CODE: ENG 2D
CREDIT: 1.0
MINISTRY PREREQUISITE: Grade 9 English
POLICY DOCUMENTS:
The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, English, 1999
Program Planning and Assessment, 1999
Ontario Secondary Schools 9 to 12 - Program Requirements, 1999

Description/Rationale

This course extends the range of analytic reading, writing, oral communication, and thinking skills that
students need for success in secondary school academic programs. Students will study and interpret
challenging texts from contemporary and historical periods, including novels, poems, plays, and opinion
pieces, and will analyse and create effective media works. An important focus will be the thoughtful use
of spoken and written language.

Curriculum Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

Literature Studies and Reading

1. read and demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational texts, from
contemporary and historical periods;
2. demonstrate an understanding of the elements of a variety of literary and informational forms, with a
focus on novels, poems, plays, and opinion pieces;
3. identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and informational
texts;

Writing

4. use a variety of print and electronic sources to gather information and explore ideas for their written
work;
5. identify the literary and informational forms suited to various purposes and audiences and use the
forms appropriately in their own writing, with an emphasis on adopting a suitable voice;
6. use a variety of organizational techniques to present ideas and information logically and coherently
in written work;
7. revise their written work, independently and collaboratively, with a focus on support for ideas and
opinions, accuracy, clarity, coherence, and effective use of stylistic devices;
8. edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support
of print and electronic resources when appropriate;

Language

9. use knowledge of vocabulary and language conventions to speak, write, and read competently and
effectively using a level of language appropriate to the context;
10. use listening techniques and oral communication skills to participate in classroom discussions and
more formal activities, such as dramatizing, presenting, and debating, for a variety of purposes and
audiences;

Unit 1 - Page 28 English - Academic

BLM 1.1-1 (Continued)

Media Studies

11. analyse a range of media forms to identify their elements, audiences, and production practices, and
draw conclusions about how these factors shape media works;
12. use knowledge of a range of media forms, purposes, and audiences to create media works and use
established criteria to assess the effectiveness of the works.

Course Content

Unit 1: Beauty and the Beast
Unit 2: Voices
Unit 3: Diversity
Unit 4: Interactions
Unit 5: Independence

Assessment

Term Work: 70%
Culminating Activities 30%
Presentation at Book Festival (15%)
Examination (15%)
(The Achievement Chart for English in
The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, English and Program
Planning and Assessment, 1999 will guide assessment.)

Resource/Reference Texts/Materials

Anthologies:
Novel:
Lord of the Flies

Grammar:
Poetry:
Plays:
Romeo and Juliet

Unit 1 - Page 29 English - Academic

BLM1.1-2

Rating Scale for Written Speech

LEVEL 1 2 3 4
Criteria

1. Distinct Voice ...................................................................…...........
2. Distinct Tone .......................................................................….......
3. Clarity of Expression .....................................................................….........
4. Fluency ...................................................................…...........
5. Powerful Words ...............................................................…...............
6. Effective Syntax ............................................................................…..
7. Spelling ..................................................................................
8. Punctuation ..................................................................................

BLM 1.2-1

First Sentences of Novels

Read each of the following sentences. Assess each for word choice and voice. Try to predict the content
of the novel. Choose which sentence is the most intriguing and explain why.
1. If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you’ll probably want to know is where I was born,
and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had
me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don’t feel like going into it, if you want to
know the truth. (J.D. Salinger.
Catcher in the Rye.)
2. Call me Ishmael. (Herman McIville.
Moby Dick.)
3. He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone eighty-four days
now without taking a fish. (Ernest Hemingway.
The Old Man and the Sea.)
4. I can’t believe I’m on this road again, twisting along past the lake where the white birches are dying,
the disease is spreading up from the south, and I notice they now have sea-planes for hire. (Margaret
Atwood.
Surfacing.)
5. My lifelong involvement with Mrs. Dempster began at 5:58 o’clock p.m. on the 27th of December,
1908, at which time I was ten years and seven months old. (Robertson Davies.
Fifth Business.)
6. Above the town, on the hill brow, the stone angel used to stand. (Margaret Laurence.
The Stone
Angel.)
7. Dear Father and Mother,
I have great trouble, and some comfort, to acquaint you with. (Samuel Richardson.
Clarissa.)

Unit 1 - Page 30 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-2

Suggested Books for Independent Reading

- compiled from suggestions by students, librarians, bookstore managers, and teachers

*Canadian (where known)

FICTION

1 – BEAUTY AND THE BEAST/HOLD FAST TO DREAMS

Baker, Nancy.
A Terrible Beauty. Gothic Vampire novels, about the “inner vampire”, set in Toronto.*
Bell, William.
Crabbe. A teenage boy struggles with alcoholism.*
Brooks, Martha.
Bone Dance. A teenage girl from Toronto travels west and meets a boy haunted by
nightmares.*
Burnard, Bonnie.
A Good House. Three generations in the life of an ordinary small town family from the
1950's to the 1990's. 1999 Winner of the Giller Prize.*
Crutcher, Chris.
Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes. Male/Female relationships.
Garland, Alex.
The Beach. A Lord of the Flies for Generation X. Richard and his friends find a beach in
Thailand where life seems ideal until conflicts with nature, armed guards, and each other create a
nightmare.
Hemingway, Ernest.
The Old Man and the Sea. An old man struggles to bring in a marlin.
Hospital, Janette Turner.
Tiger in the Tiger Pit. The family secret explodes at a birthday party.*
Hubert, Cam.
Dreamspeaker. An aboriginal boy seeks help from a wise elder.
Hughes, Monica.
Hunter in the Dark. A teenage boy pursues his dream, despite his illness.*
Laurence, Margaret.
The Stone Angel. An old woman examines her relationships in life.*
Lee, Harper.
To Kill a Mockingbird. Jem and Scout learn about prejudice from their townsfolk and about
ideals from their father.
Major, Kevin.
Hold Fast. A teenage boy and his cousin flee an oppressive father to search for freedom
and a sense of family.*
Melling, O.R.
Druid’s Tune. Fantasy. Teenagers travel to the time of the Celtic Druids.
Rawlings, K .
Harry Potter. A teenage boy goes to a school for magicians and finds adventure.
Salinger, J.D.
Catcher in the Rye. Holden Caulfield, isolated from his peers, seeks meaning in the adult
world and his family.
Shields, Carol.
The Stone Diaries.*
Steinbeck, John.
Of Mice and Men. Two friends seek their dream and find a nightmare.
Westall, Robert.
The Promise. Romance.*

Unit 1 - Page 31 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-2 (Continued)

2 – VOICES (Controversial Issues)

Bradbury, Ray
. Fahrenheit 451. A science fiction world where books are burned.
Grisham, John.
A Time to Kill. A good plot and revelation of prejudice in the American south.
Huxley, Aldous.
Brave New World. A science fiction depiction of a pleasure-loving world
Ibuse, Masuji.
Black Rain. A Japanese writer portrays the aftermath of a nuclear bomb.
Kogawa, Joy.
Itsuka. Naomi moves to Toronto and becomes involved in the Japanese Canadian fight for
redress.*
Kogawa, Joy.
Obasan. Naomi’s childhood is torn apart by Canada’s treatment of Japanese Canadian
citizens during the 1940's.*
Maguire, Gregory.
I Feel Like the Morning Star. Science fiction. Teenagers in a post-holocaust world.*
Matas, Carol.
Lisa’s War. Teenagers struggle with Nazi oppression in Denmark.
Morrissey, Donna.
Kit’s Law. A fourteen-year-old Kit Pitman in an isolated outport in Newfoundland
struggles with a tragic change of circumstances and a local menace.*
Orwell, George.
1984. Caught in a totalitarian regime, Winston Smith seeks self-expression and love.
Quinn, Daniel.
My Ishmael. A 15-year-old girl meets a teacher who helps her examine her own culture.
Pfeffer, Susan.
Twice Taken. A teenager girl deals with the problem of abduction.*
Reynolds, Marilyn.
Detour for Emmy. A teenage girl struggles being a teen mother.*
Rostkowski, Margaret.
The Best Friends. Teenagers in the time of the Vietnam War.
Swindells, Robert.
Stone Cold. Homeless, frightened, and alone, Link finds himself down-and-out in
London.

3 – DIVERSITY

Agiri, Laura.
The God in Flight. Gender issues.
Badami, Anita Rau.
Tamarind Mem. A portrait of two generations of women in an East Indian family.*
Black, Francesca.
Girl Goddess #9.
Brown, Rosellen.
Civil Wars. Multicultural.
Buck, Pearl.
A Pavilion of Women. Life in China from women’s perspective.
Chambers, Aidan.
Dance on my Grave. Gender issues.
Choy, Wayson.
The Jade Peony. Three characters reminisce about growing up in Chinatown, Vancouver,
in the late 1930s and 40s. A Trillium Book Award winner.*
Desai, Anita.
Fire on the Mountain. Generational.
Doyle, Brian.
Angel Square.*
Doyle, Brian.
Spud Sweetgrass.*
Esquivel, Laura.
Like Water for Chocolate. In Mexico, a daughter struggles with her mother’s harsh
expectations.
Garden, Nancy.
Good Moon Rising and Lark in the Morning. Gender issues.
Gates Jr., Henry Louis.
Coloured People. Multicultural.
Green, Bette.
Summer of My German Soldier. Multicultural, male/female relationships.
Hartling, Peter.
Old John. Generational issues.

Unit 1 - Page 32 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-2 (Continued)

Haviaras, Stratis.
Where the Tree Sings. Greek freedom fighters struggle to defend their land.
Hesse, Hermann.
Siddhartha. A young man seeks and finds enlightenment in India.
Highway, Tomson.
Kiss of the Fur Queen. Two Cree brothers are torn from their life in northern
Manitoba and thrust into a residential school. Both fight to survive and become artists.*
Holubitsky, Katherine.
Alone at Ninety Foot.
Howe, James.
The Watcher.
Huser, Glen.
Touch of the Clown.

Khan, Ruhlsana.
Dahling, If You Luv Me, Would You Please, Please Smile.
Kim, Helen.
The Long Season of Rain.

Magorian, Michelle.
Goodnight Mister Tom. Generational Issues.
Major, Kevin.
Blood Red Ochre. Male/female issues, Multicultural*.
Manioka, Lensey.
Ties that Bind, Ties that Break: a Novel. Multicultural
Mates, Carol.
Telling.
Miller, Isabel.
Side by Side. Gender issues.
Naidoo, Beverley. J
ourney to Jo’burg: a South African Story. Multicultural.
Napoli, Donna Jo.
Sirena. Male/female relationships.
Newbery, Yearling.
The Watsons Go to Birmingham.
Patchett, Ann.
The Magician’s Assistant. Gender issues, Male/Female relationships.
Potok, Chaim.
The Chosen. Generational.
Ricci, Nino.
Lives of the Saints. A young boy in Italy comes to terms with his mother’s “crime”.*
Richardson, Bill.
Batchelor Brothers’ Bed and Breakfast. The hilarious encounters among guests at a bed
and breakfast in British Columbia.*
Solzhenitsyn, Alexandre.
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. The story of one man’s struggle to
survive in a Russian prison.
Staples, Suzanne Fisher.
Shabanu: Daughter of the Wind. Multicultural.
Staples, Suzannne Fisher.
Haveli. Male/female relationships. Multicultural.
Tan, Amy.
The Joy Luck Club. Set in modern times in California, a group of Chinese women share their
stories.
Uchida, Yoshiko.
Journey to Topaz. Multicultural, Generational.
Vassanji, M.G.
No New Land. An Asian family from Africa immigrate to Don Mills and find themselves
caught between two worlds.*
Voigt, Cynthia.
Homecoming. Generational.
Wieler, Diana.
Ranvan: The Defender.

Unit 1 - Page 33 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-2 (Continued)

NON-FICTION

1 – BEAUTY AND THE BEAST/HOLD FAST TO DREAMS

autobiography, biography
Anonymous.
Go Ask Alice. A diary of a teenage girl caught in the world of drugs.
Campbell, Maria.
Half-Breed.*
Canfield, Jack, Mark Victor Hansen, and Kimberly Kirberger.
Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul. A
mixture of true and fictional stories on life, love, and learning.
Christopher, Matt.
On the Course with Tiger Woods.

Epstein, Edward.
Michelle Kwan - Born to Skate.

Freedland, Michael.
The Secret Life of Danny Kaye. How the famous comedian made his dream come
true.
Kingwell, Mark.
Dreams of Millennium: Report from a Culture on the Brink. An analysis of our culture
as we reach the millennium.*
Klein, Naomi.
No Logo. An analysis of our world of brand names where beauty for some causes
nightmare conditions for others.*
Merritt, Susan.
Her Story 11: Women from Canada’s Past.*
Pipher, Mary.
Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls.

Wolf, Naomi.
The Beauty Myth.

2 – VOICES

autobiography, biography
Demczyna, Antonina.
From East to West. An inspiring true story of a young girl’s struggle in a German
prisoner-of-war factory, her marriage, and her journey to Canada.*
Frank, Anne.
The Diary of Anne Frank. A Jewish girl, in hiding during World War 11, deals with the
problems of confinement, war, and growing up.
Harr, Jonathan.
A Civil Action. The gripping story of how a lawyer discovered the crime behind a
leukemia outbreak in an area of the United States.
McCourt, Frank.
Angela’s Ashes. A boy growing up in poverty in Ireland.

3 – DIVERSITY

autobiography, biography
Angelou, Maya
. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.
Connelly, Karen.
Touch the Dragon. A Thai Journal. A Canadian teenager keeps a diary during her time
in Thailand.*
Miller, Orlo.
The Donnellys Must Die. The clash between a family and a community in early Ontario.*
Wong, Jan.
Red China Blues.*

Unit 1 - Page 34 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-3

Grade 10 English Grammar Expectations Summary

Teacher Resource
ENG2D GRAMMAR ENG2P GRAMMAR

first and third person (WR2.04D) (WR2.03P)
appropriate level of language (WR2.04D)
identify idioms, euphemisms, slang, dialect, acronyms, academic
language, technical terms, and standard Canadian English and
explain why the usage is effective in its context (LG1.01D)
identify ways in which technology, other languages, and media
have influenced the English language (LG1.02D)
(WR2.03P)
identify when it is appropriate to
use slang, dialect, colloquialisms,
idioms, acronyms, and technical
terminology, and standard
Canadian English (LG1.04P)
(LG1.01P)
footnotes or parenthetical documentation works cited
(WR5.01D)
punctuating quotations (WR5.13D)
(WR5.01P)
the infinitive and gerund (WR5.05D) the participle (WR5.05)
compound- complex sentences, using prepositional, adjective and
adverb phrases; infinitive, participial, and gerund phrases; and
noun, adjective, and adverb clauses (WR5.06D)
compound- complex sentences,
using adjective and adverb phrases
and noun, adjective, and adverb
clauses (WR5.06P)
active and passive verb voice (WR5.07D) (WR5.O9P)
semicolon (WR5.11D) (WR5.13P)
use the comma, dash, and parentheses correctly to set off nonrestrictive
elements in a sentence (WR5.12D)
agreement of subject and verb, pronoun and antecedent,
consistency of verb tense and voice (LG1.05D)
+ agreement of collective nouns
used as subjects with their verbs
(WR5.08P)
(LG1.05P)
identify and correct sentence errors (LG1.06D) (WR5.07P)

Unit 1 - Page 35 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-4

Lesson on the Gerund

Expectation

- to use parts of speech correctly, including the infinitive and the gerund (WR5.05D)

Resources

The Harcourt Writer’s Handbook, Gerund, defined, 16, 154

The Harcourt Writer’s Handbook: Teacher’s Resource, “Gerunds and Gerund Phrases”, 71.

ResourceLines 9/10, 314

Writers Inc., 737

Instructions

1. The teacher explains to the students that they have been using gerunds in their speech and writing but
may not have known the term gerund.
2. The teacher writes a definition on the board, which the students copy into their notes.
3. The teacher write a few short sentences which include gerunds on the board and asks students to
identify the gerunds.

Assessment

Pairs of students underline or highlight gerunds in a passage of their own writing, which the teacher
checks.

BLM 1.2-5

Sample Lesson on Stage Direction Terms

Expectations

- to identify...technical terms...and explain why the usage is effective in its context (LG1.01D)
- to identify technical stage direction terms in the play Romeo and Juliet and explain why the usage is
effective in its context

Resource

Shakespeare, William.
The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet with Related Readings. Toronto: ITP Nelson
(Canada), 1997. [See page 9 for “The Text and Stage Directions”: above, aloft, alarum, aside, below,
beneath, draws, exit, exeunt, falls, flourish, hautboys, omnes, torchbearers, within.]

Instructions

1. The teacher draws a diagram of the Elizabethan stage on the board, and has the students identify
orally stage direction terms which they already know. The teacher records these on the diagram.
2. The students copy the diagram and the terms in their notes.
3. The students scan the play for unfamiliar stage direction terms and lists them with the page number
where they found them. They write a tentative definition beside each term, then check the meaning in
a dictionary.
4. When a student has verified the meaning of a term, the teacher asks him/her to add this new term to
the note on the board, and continues this until all new terms have been defined.
5. The students add the new terms to their notes.
6. As the play is read, the teacher reviews the meaning of the stage directions.

Assessment

The teacher prepares a quiz of these terms for students to write.

Unit 1 - Page 36 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-6

Independent Reading Assignment

Description

During the Grade 10 English course, you will develop your skills as an independent reader in preparation
for adult life. In addition to the class books, you will choose three books which relate to themes of the
course. One of these books must be non-fiction, such as a biography. You will have some time in class to
read but most of your reading will be done outside of class. As you read your books, you will write your
ideas in a weekly reading response journal which is a way for you to explore your personal reaction to
the books and the themes. You will have conferences with your teacher to talk about your ideas. At the
end of this exploration, you and your fellow students will publicize the books you have read in a Book
Festival for an invited audience.
Your performance at the Book Festival is one of the culminating activities of the course and is worth
15% of your final mark. The knowledge and skills you develop during the course will prepare you for
this performance. Your teacher will use The Achievement Chart -
Grades 9-10, English to assess your
performance which consists of the following: your reading response journal, your best piece of writing
from your reading response journal, a book review about one of your books in a letter or book review
format, your book talk, and a media display for the Book Festival.

Sequence of Activities

Unit 1 - Beauty and the Beast

1. Choose a book which connects with the theme of the unit “Beauty and the Beast.”
2. Have your book approved by your teacher.
3. Read your book in class and for homework.
4. Write a weekly reading response journal entry about your book (about two pages in length).
5. Have a conference with your teacher to talk about your reaction to the book.

Unit 2 - Voices

1. Choose a book which connects with the theme of the unit “Voices”. Remember to consider a nonfiction
book.
2. Have your book approved by your teacher.
3. Read your book in class and for homework.
4. Write a weekly reading response journal entry about your book.
5. Have a conference with your teacher to talk about your reaction to the book.

Unit 3 - Diversity

1. Choose a book, either fiction or non-fiction, which deals with the theme of the unit.
2. Have your book approved by your teacher.
3. Read your selection in class and for homework.
4. Write a weekly reading response journal entry about your reaction to the book.
5. Have a conference with your teacher to talk about your reaction to the book.

Unit 1 - Page 37 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-6 (Continued)

Unit 4 - Interactions

During this unit you are preparing some components of your Book Festival display. These are the
following: reading response journal; best piece of writing from your reading response journal; book
review; book talk; and media display publicizing books. You will have some time in Unit 5, but try to
complete the first three of these components during Unit 4.
Your teacher will use the Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10, English to assess your performance on these
five components. The level which you achieve will result in 15% of your final mark. The teacher will
assess your dress rehearsal performance. If you improve your presentation significantly you may request
another assessment at the Book Festival.

Book Festival - Component 1: Reading Response Journal

1. Choose your best piece of writing from your reading response journal and indicate your choice with a
star (*). Hand your complete response journal to your teacher, who will assess it for completion and
degree of understanding and thinking. The teacher will also confirm your choice of your best “piece”
from your reading response journal.

Book Festival - Component 2: Best Piece of Writing from Journal

2. Edit, revise, and publish your best piece of writing from your reading response journal using a
computer. This is one of the items for the Book Festival. Your teacher will assess it using the
Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10, English.

Book Festival - Component 3: Book Review

3. Prepare a book review about a different book from the one featured in your best “piece”. It may be a
book review in a format suitable for a newspaper or magazine, or written as a letter to an editor, a
librarian, or an interested reader.

Unit 5 - Independence

Book Festival - Component 4: Book Talk

1. Prepare your book talks on your three books for the Book Festival.

Book Festival - Component 5: Media Display

2. Prepare a media display to publicize your books. This may consist of posters, illustrations,
quotations, pamphlets, audiotapes, maps, costumes – whatever would attract an audience to your display.
3. Present your books in an oral presentation to a small group of your peers and your teacher in a dress
rehearsal for the Book Festival.
4. Use the student and teacher comments to improve your presentations.
5. Participate in the publicity campaign for the Book Festival.
6. On the day of the Book Festival, publicize your books with enthusiasm! Your presentation consists of
your reading response journal, your best piece of writing from your reading response journal, your
book review, your book talks, and your media display.

Unit 1 - Page 38 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-7

Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component One: Reading Response Journal

Aim

Your reading response journal will demonstrate your understanding of your reading, your thinking about
your reading, and your ability to express your ideas. Your reading skills and communication skills will
develop as you practise them over the 12 weeks .

Instructions

1. Each week you will express your response to your reading in a written journal, one to two pages in
length which you will hand in to your teacher for feedback.
2. Use BLM 1.3-4 – Reading for Meaning if you need a prompt for your journal.
3. In your conferences with your teacher, you will share your ideas about your reading.
4. By the end of 12 weeks you will have 12 reading responses to hand in for summative assessment by
the teacher.
5. You will choose your best reading response and indicate your choice with a star (*).
6. Your reading journal is included in your Book Festival presentation.

Assessment

The teacher will use the Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10 English to assess your reading response
journal with particular emphasis on the final entries which should demonstrate growth from the initial
ones. The criteria on the chart used for the reading journal are the following:
K1 - knowledge of texts
K2 - understanding of information, ideas, concepts and themes
K3 - understanding of relationships among ideas, concepts, and themes
K4 - understanding of the uses and effects of aesthetic elements
T1 - critical and creative thinking skills
T2 - inquiry skills
C1 - communication of ideas
A3 - application of reading strategies
A6 - making connections between experiences and ‘texts’

Unit 1 - Page 39 English - Academic

BLM1.2-8

Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Two: Best Piece of Writing from the
Reading Response Journal

Aim

You will revise and publish your best piece of writing from your reading response journal as an example
of your skills in reading, thinking and communication.

Instructions

1. Discuss your choice of best piece of writing with your teacher. It should be between one and two
pages in length.
2. Revise and publish a final copy of your best piece of writing using a word processor. Keep in mind
the assessment criteria.
3. Hand this to your teacher for assessment.
4. Include this assignment in your Book Festival presentation.

Assessment

The teacher will use the Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10, English to assess your best reading journal.
The criteria on the chart used for your best reading journal are as follows:
K1 - knowledge of forms and texts
K2 - understanding of ideas, concepts, and themes
K3 - understanding of relationships among ideas, concepts and themes
K4 - understanding of the uses and effects of aesthetic elements in texts
T1 - critical and creative thinking skills
C1 - communication of ideas (logical organization)
C2 - choice of language and style
A1 - application of language conventions
A4 - application of writing process
A5 - application of technology
A6 - making connections between experiences and text

Unit 1 - Page 40 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-9

Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Three: Book Review

Aim

Write a book review on one of your books for distribution at the Book Festival. This assignment will
demonstrate your judgment in assessing a book’s value for readers.

Instructions

1. Review the expectations for a review as taught in Unit 3: Diversity, and consult sample book reviews
in magazines and newspapers.
2. Write, revise, and edit your book review, keeping in mind the audience of the Book Festival.
3. Prepare a final copy using a computer.
4. Hand your book review to your teacher for assessment.
5. Include several copies of the book review in your display for the Book Festival to give away to
potential readers.

Assessment

The teacher will use the Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10, English to assess your book review.
The criteria on the chart used for your book review are as follows:
K1 - knowledge of forms and texts
K2 - understanding of ideas, concepts, and themes
K3 - understanding of relationships among ideas, concepts and themes
K4 - understanding of the uses and effects of aesthetic elements in texts
T1 - critical and creative thinking skills
C1 - communication of ideas (logical organization)
C2 - choice of language and style
C3 - use of form of book review
A1 - application of language conventions
A4 - application of writing process
A5 - application of technology
A6 - making connections between English and the world outside the school

Unit 1 - Page 41 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-10

Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Four: Book Talk

Purpose

You will prepare and present book talks about your three books at the dress rehearsal and the Book
Festival to interest your audience in your books.

Instructions

1. Prepare a book talk on each book using a teacher-model book talk as your exemplar.
2. The book talk should be brief but entertaining. In a talk of three to five minutes give your listeners
reasons why they will enjoy reading the book.
3. Prepare cue cards with the main points of your talk on them.
4. Practise your book talk alone and with other people until you have a smooth delivery. Remember the
presentation skills taught in previous units.
5. Present your book talks to a group of your peers and your teacher in a dress rehearsal. This
performance will be assessed by your teacher.
6. Listen to their comments about what to add and remove; and change and adjust your book talks as
needed.
7. At the Book Festival, be ready to talk spontaneously to your audience if they would like to talk
further about your books.

Assessment

Your book talks will be assessed using the Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10, English. The following
criteria will be used:
K1 - knowledge of forms of texts
K2 - understanding of ideas, concepts and themes
K3 - understanding of relationships among ideas and concepts
K4 - understanding of uses and effects of aesthetic elements and themes
T1 - critical and creative thinking skills
C1 - communication of information and idea (logical organization)
C2 - choice of language and style
C3 - use of form of book talk
A2 - application of oral communication conventions and techniques
A6 - making connections between English and the world outside the school.

Unit 1 - Page 42 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-11

Assignment Sheet for Book Festival Component Five: Media Display

Aim

You will create a media display to publicize your book in the place designated by your teacher. Use your
creativity to design an eye catching, attractive display using techniques developed in the course.

Instructions

1. Draw a scale diagram of the display area as described by your teacher.
2. Brainstorm ideas about how to publicize your books with impact. Consider posters, colourful
background, illustrations, quotations, a costume, map, and charts. Remember to include copies of the
book!
3. Create the media products and assemble your display. (If you wish to work with another student ask
your teacher.)
4. At the dress rehearsal, assemble your display, your books, your reading journals, your best reading
response and your book review. Deliver your book talks to an audience of your peers and teacher.
Your teacher will assess your performance using the Achievement Chart - Grades 9-10, English.
5. Store your materials carefully until the book Festival.
6. Assemble your media display at the Book Festival and enjoy talking to your audience.
7. Dismantle your display and add the best components to a classroom display.

Assessment

The following criteria form the Achievement Chart - Grades 9 -10, English will be used by the media
display.
K2 - understanding of ideas, concepts and themes
K4 - understanding of the uses and effects of aesthetic elements
T1 - critical of language and style for audience
C1 - communication of information and ideas
C2 - choice of language and style for audience
C3 - use of various forms of communication
A1 - application of language conventions
A2 - application of media conventions and techniques
A5 - application of technology
A6 - making connection between English and the world outside the school

Unit 1 - Page 43 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-12

Rubric for Personal Response to Text

Expectations
Focus/Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%

Knowledge/
Understanding
LIV.02D

inferences

analysis
- randomly
selects directly
stated
information
- paraphrases
the text
- identifies
significant details
- identifies
simple patterns of
information and
elements in the
structure of the
text
- connects
information and
ideas to describe
overall focus of the
text
- understands the
structure of the text
- makes
inferences about
abstract concepts
and figurative
and symbolic
elements in the
text
- connects works
to other works,
writers
Thinking/
Inquiry
WRV.02D

integration

evidence
- reflects
limited
interaction with
the text
- offers limited
support for
judgements
about the text
- integrates some
elements of the
text with values
and experience
- offers support
for judgements
made about the
text
- integrates important
elements of the text
with values/
experiences
- supports
judgements with
relevant, accurate
facts and ideas from
the text
- strong support
from the text,
integrates
elements from
text and own
values to create a
unique
interpretation that
is compelling,
provocative and
fresh
Communication
WRV.03D

unity

coherence
- shows a
limited focus or
central idea
- structure and
sequence lack a
clear
organization
- expresses a
central idea that
is clear and
relevant to the
question
- structure and
sequence are
clear
- expresses central
ideas that show clear
understanding of the
text and the question
- uses a structure that
supports the central
idea effectively
- communicates a
central idea that
is thoughtprovoking
and
insightful
- creates a
structure that
enhances an
appreciation of
the response
Application
WRV.04D
WRV.05D

written
conventions

proofreading
- uses required
conventions
with limited
accuracy
- limited use of
proofreading
skills
- uses the
required
conventions with
some accuracy
and effectiveness
- moderate use of
proofreading
skills
- uses the important
writing conventions
accurately and
effectively
- consistent use of
proofreading skills
- uses writing
conventions
skillfully
- thorough use of
proofreading
skills

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 1 - Page 44 English - Academic

BLM 1.2-13

Criteria for the Book Festival Components - Grades 9-10, English

K - Knowledge
T - Thinking/Inquiry
C - Communication
A - Application

Teacher Resource
Book Festival Components Criteria from the Achievement Chart,
Grades 9-10, English

1. Reading response journals K1, K2, K3, K4
T1, T2
C1
A3, A6
2. Best of writing from the reading response journal K1, K2, K3, K4
T1
C1, C2
A1, A4, A5, A6
3. Book review K1, K2, K3, K4
T1
C1, C2, C3
A1, A4, A5, A6
4. Oral book talk K1, K2, K3, K4
T1
C1, C2, C3
A2, A6
5. Media display K2, K4
T1
C1, C2, C3
A1, A2, A5, A6
See The Achievement Chart,
The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, English, 1999.

Unit 1 - Page 45 English - Academic

BLM 1.3-1

Grade 10 Editing and Revising Checklist

TITLE

Is there an original title?

For longer assignments, does the title page have an original title, the writer’s name, the course,
school, the teacher’s name, and the full date?

SPELLING

Have I used a dictionary or a spell checker?

PUNCTUATION

Have I used correct punctuation?

Have I used the semicolon correctly?

Have I corrected any comma splices?

Have I used the comma, dash, and parentheses correctly to set off non-restrictive elements in a
sentence? (2D)

Have I used punctuation correctly when quoting short passages?

VOCABULARY

Have I been consistent in the use of an appropriate level of language?

Have I selected words and figurative language to make my writing vivid, specific, and interesting?

PRONOUNS

Do pronouns agree with their antecedents?

Have I selected first or third person to suit the form, purpose, and audience?

Have I been consistent in the use of the first or third person?

VERBS

Have I used active or passive verb voice appropriately and consistently?

Do subjects agree with their verbs?

Have I avoided mixing past and present tenses of verbs inappropriately?

Do collective nouns used as subjects agree with their verbs?

Have I used the participle correctly?

Have I used infinitives and gerunds correctly? (2D)

SENTENCES

Are my sentences complete?

Have I eliminated any run-on sentences?

Have I varied sentence structure?

Is the meaning of each sentence clear?

Unit 1 - Page 46 English - Academic

BLM 1.3-1 (Continued)

PARAGRAPHS

Is there one idea per paragraph?

Are ideas adequately supported by relevant details and facts?

ORGANIZATION

Are my ideas and information presented in a logical order?

Have I included an introductory paragraph and a concluding paragraph?

Does the introductory paragraph have a clear thesis, a device to engage the reader’s interest, and an
overview of the main points to be covered?

Have I used connecting words and phrases to show how the thought is developed?

Have I used headings when writing a report?

DOCUMENTATION

Have I identified borrowed information, ideas, and quotations with footnotes or parenthetical
documentation?

Are quotations incorporated smoothly?

Have I provided a “Works Cited” list which conforms to the style recommended by my teacher?

AUDIENCE

Have I considered the reactions of teachers, peers, and others in revising and editing this work?

Unit 1 - Page 47 English - Academic

BLM 1.3-2

Revision: the ARRRP Approach

The “ARRRP Approach” provides you with a means to improve the quality of your writing assignment.
The word is an acronym that simplifies the revision process into five steps:

A - Add (Support for your opinions with facts, details, argument.)

R - Rearrange (Change the sequence of the sentences and the paragraph to improve coherence.)

R - Remove (Remove unnecessary words and sentences that interfere with the meaning of the
piece.)

R - Rewrite (Rewrite sentences that you know to be ugly.)

P - Proofread (Check for spelling and grammatical errors.
Your word-processing program may be of help here.)
In your groups read one another’s work and try to make a revision suggestion for each of the five steps:
1. Suggest additions to improve the work.
2. Suggest a change in the sequence of the sentence.
3. Remove unnecessary words, phrases, and sentences.
4. Rewrite sentences that are clumsy or draw a line under it to highlight it for the writer.
5. Correct spelling and grammatical errors.
Return the revised copy to the writer.
(This approach appears in
Bridges.)

BLM 1.3-3

Beauty and the Beast

Source

Variations of this tale appear in numerous cultures. Although Madame Gabrielle de Villeneuve wrote a
362 page version in French in 1740, Madame Le Prince de Beaumont wrote a short story version in 1756,
which has become the best known version.
(Heiner, Heidi Anne. “Beauty and the Beast History.”. Available at
http://members.aol.com/surlalune/frytales/banbeast/)

Summary

Once there was a man with two nasty daughters and one kind daughter, Beauty. He lost his
fortune and had to travel on business. One night, he found a castle with food and shelter waiting for him.
In the morning he picked a rose for Beauty.
Suddenly, a horrible Beast appeared and threatened him with death for picking the rose. The
Beast allowed him to go home to say goodbye to his girls. Beauty volunteered to take his place, and
travelled to the Beast’s home.
When the Beast saw Beauty, he fell in love with her and treated her kindly. Later, when she
asked if she could visit her family, he agreed on condition that she would return in a week.
While Beauty was gone, the Beast started to die of grief. When she returned, she told him that
she loved him.
The Beast changed into a handsome prince and they lived happily ever after.
(
Once Upon a Time There Was Beauty and the Beast. Internet. Available at
http://www.cinematographer.com/magazine/sept97/beast/pg1.htm)

Unit 1 - Page 48 English - Academic

BLM 1.3-4

Response Journal: Reading for Meaning

Modern reading theory emphasizes that the reader is a “meaning-maker”, not an empty vessel to be filled
with meaning by a teacher.
Your response journal is a place for you to explore what meaning the book has for you. After
approximately 20 pages, stop and reflect about your reading. Write about one-half a page of your
thoughts. Continue to write a response journal at points according to your teacher’s instructions. If you
need some ideas about what to write...

A. Your Reading Process

What goes on inside your mind as you read? What predictions are you making? What problems are you
encountering? How do you solve these problems? What sections of the book read quickly? Why? What
images remain in your mind? Are you aware of colours, sensory details? Are you enjoying the process?

B. Kinds of Reading Satisfaction

1. Reading for Plot a. What short-term and long-term predictions can you make?
b. Did a certain event change your interpretation of past events?
2. Empathizing with characters.
c. With which characters do you empathize? Why?
3. Linking book to real life.
d. Do situations remind you of events in your own memory bank?
e. What areas of real life are illuminated by this book?
4. Reflection on the significance of events and behaviour (theme)
f. What wisdom about people, the world, living, are you learning?
5. Seeing the book as art
g. How do the parts of the book form an artistic pattern? Are you aware of
patterns? Does the ending give a feeling of completion?
6. Linking the book to other books, poems, stories, movies, songs.
h. Does your book remind you of other creative works? In what way?

Unit 1 - Page 49 English - Academic

BLM 1.3-5

Notes for Personal Response Writing

The Personal Response to literature is a written response that integrates reading and writing skills. The
criteria that are derived from this description of the reading process describe the degrees to which readers
of different abilities interpret, explore and extend meaning of the text. The criteria that are derived from
the description of the writing process describe the degrees to which students integrate their values and
their experience with their understanding of the text. The diagram below is a useful way to view this
process.

Questions should:

relate to the text.

require the student to make a judgement which demonstrates their values and experiences.

insist on supporting student responses by references to the text.

Unit 1 - Page 50 English - Academic

BLM 1.5-1

Rubric for Dialogue

Expectations
Focus/Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%

Knowledge/
Understanding

Character

Situation
- reflects a limited
understanding of
the characters
- reflects limited
understanding of
the situation
- reflects an
understanding of
the characters
- demonstrates a
limited
understanding of
the situation
- interprets the
characters and
situation
accurately
- demonstrates
considerable
understanding of
how the context
shapes the
characters in
conversation
-dialogue shows
an insightful
understanding of
the situation, the
characters and
their motives
Thinking/
Inquiry

Interpretation
- reflects limited
interpretation of
the character
-shows an uneven
interpretation of
the characters
- demonstrates a
consistent
interpretation of
the characters
- interprets the
character clearly,
consistently
Communication

Coherence
- conversation has
limited
connection with
the text
- structure and
sequence of the
conversation
somewhat
consistent with
the text
- conversation is
structured to
support
interpretation of
the characters and
is integrated into
the text
- conversation is
organized to
communicate an
insightful view of
the character
Application

Writing
Conventions

Proofreading
- uses required
conventions with
limited accuracy
- limited use of
proofreading
skills
- uses the
required
conventions with
some accuracy
and effectiveness
- moderate use of
proofreading
skills
- uses the
important
conventions
accurately and
effectively
- consistent use of
proofreading
skills
- uses writing
conventions
skillfully
- thorough use of
proofreading
skills

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 1 - Page 51 English - Academic

BLM 1.5-2

Creative Writing Anthology Assignment

INSTRUCTIONS

As a culminating activity for this unit, you will prepare a Creative Writing Anthology of poems and
dialogue. The poems and dialogue will be written during the unit, then edited, revised and published at
the end of the unit.

CONTENTS

1. Title Page - your title, your name, course, teacher, school, date.
2. Introduction - Your introduction to your anthology: includes comments about the themes you wrote
about, and a self-evaluation of your poetry and dialogue.
3. Poem/Prose on an animal.
4. Four poems on four of the final eight chapters (quatrain, free verse, concrete poem)
5. Found Poem from a chapter
6. One Dialogue

FORMAT

Your Creative Writing Anthology must be typed, error-free, and presented in an attractive format.

ASSESSMENT

The student and the teacher assess the anthology using the Rubric for Poetry and the Rubric for Dialogue.

Unit 1 - Page 52 English - Academic

BLM 1.5-3

Rubric for Poetry Anthology

Expectations
Focus/Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%

Knowledge/
Understanding
LIV.02D

Topic

Theme
-the poems show
an understanding
of the topic
-the topic is
elaborated into a
clearly recognized
theme
-the ideas in the
poems are clear,
well-developed
and interesting
-the poems
express a unique
and provocative
view of the theme
Thinking/Inquiry
WRV.03D

Coherence
-consistent tone,
viewpoint, and
thematic focus is
apparent
-style and tone are
consciously used
to support the
poems’ intended
thematic purposes
-ideas are
supported by the
writer’s voice and
by the style to
provide unified
poems
-poems express a
harmonious
whole; voice and
style complement
and enhance the
theme
Communication
WRV.04D

Poetic devices
-use of some
poetic devices
-use of devices
such as metre,
rhyme, and
imagery is
consistent
throughout each
poem
-poetic devices
are used skillfully
to create effective
poems
-use of poetic
devices such as
rhythm, balance,
and rhyme to
produce original
and delightful
work
Application
WRV.05D
WR5.02D

Writing
conventions

Typography
(optional)
-some accuracy in
the use of required
conventions; clear
format in poems
-accurate use of
the required
conventions;
conscious use of
font and other
effects
-accurate and
effective use of
the important
conventions and
typography
-skillful use of
writing
conventions,
typography,
shape, or colour

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 1 - Page 53 English - Academic

BLM 1.5-4

Group Assignment:
Lord of the Flies

INSTRUCTIONS

In your group, prepare an oral presentation on the chapter you have been assigned. Your presentation
should demonstrate an understanding of the interwoven themes of the chapter and an understanding of
aspects of Golding’s style.
Your presentation should contain these elements, each of which will need to be presented and discussed
with the class:
1. TOPIC WEB: After re-reading your chapter, identify important topics and note where they occur in
the chapter. Prepare a detailed topic web on chart paper for display in the classroom. In your
explanation to the class, be sure to support each topic with references to the chapter and page
number. Explain the themes clearly. Remember that the title, characters, speech, and events provide a
good source for your chapter topics.
2. FOUND POEM: Find an excerpt from the chapter which you consider poetic in style. Experiment
with writing the words in various stanzaic forms. Choose the most effective version and write it on
chart paper. Identify poetic devices on the chart paper as well.
3. SONG or POEM: Find a song or a poem that is connected to one of the topics on your topic web.
Write the words on a transparency for an overhead projector. Prepare an explanation of how the song
or poem connects with the chapter. How is the treatment of the theme similar to or different from
Golding’s?

ASSESSMENT

See Rubric for Oral Presentation of a Chapter.

BLM 1.5-5

Framework for Comparative Inquiry

Criteria Categories Summary
(Similarities/Differences)
New Order
A B

Unit 1 - Page 54 English - Academic

BLM 1.5-6

Rubric for Oral Presentation of a Chapter

Expectations
Focus/Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%

Knowledge/
Understanding
LIV.O2D

Theme

Literary
purpose
- limited
awareness of
significant aspects
and details in the
chapter
- sees the chapter
in isolation from
other chapters
- identifies
significant ideas
in the chapter
- makes some
connection to
other chapters in
the novel
- identifies central
ideas of the
chapter
- understands
some literary
purposes of the
chapter
- reflects an
insightful
understanding of
central aspects of
the chapter
- understands and
illuminates the
important literary
purposes of the
chapter
Thinking/Inquiry
LI1.04D

Inferences

Evidence
- draws a few
inferences from
the chapter
- offers limited
support for
inferences and
opinions
- makes some
inferences about
character and
theme
- offers some
support for
inferences and
opinions
- makes many
inferences about
character and
theme
- supports
judgements with
appropriate and
significant
references to the
text
- offers
interpretations and
support that
provides a unique
and interesting
perspective on the
chapter
Communication
LGV.02D

Structure

Sequence
- provides limited
structure for the
presentation
- demonstrates
limited skills in
sequencing the
parts
- uses a structure
for the
presentation that
is apparent to the
audience
- demonstrates
some skills in
sequencing the
parts
- uses a clear
structure for the
presentation that
supports its
intention
- participants
organize their
contribution to
support group
focus
- presents a
unified and
coherent structure
for the
presentation
- adapts and
integrates
individual
contributions to
support group
focus

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 1 - Page 55 English - Academic

BLM 1.8-1

Creating a Poetry CD

by Nora Christos

An interesting option in presenting information is on a multimedia CD. It provides an opportunity for an
interdisciplinary approach to learning: English, Media, and Computer Technology.
While other applications such as
Microsoft PowerPoint, HyperStudio, Corel 9, or Claris Works Slide
Show could also be used to create CDs of students’ work, the following outline relates directly to the use
of
Authorware. Therefore, a working knowledge of this application is required.
Cross-platform CD created on a PowerMac 5500/250

MATERIALS:

Software:
Microsoft Word (PC and Mac)

Adobe Photoshop (Mac)

Netscape (Mac)

Video Player (Mac)

INFINI-D (Mac)

Authorware (PC and Mac)
Hardware: PC
Mac
CD Burner
4Gb External Hard drive
Digital Camera/Video Camera
Printer (600 dpi)
1. Students write a variety of poems (free verse, haiku, limerick, lyric, ballad, cinquain, 3-word model,
acrostic, etc.) in machine-readable form. This allows for the poetry to be loaded into
Authorware 3.5.
2. Poetry is loaded into
Authorware using Microsoft Word.
3. A model is created on
Authorware to receive text, images and sound. All text, images, and sounds are
uploaded into a previously created template in Authorware.
4. Pictures of student authors are taken using a video camera, and are uploaded into the template using a
video camera, an Apple Video Player, and
Adobe Photoshop.
5. Pictures are reduced in
Claris Works and transferred into the template as bit maps to create student
specific navigation buttons. (These buttons are the students’ pictures with their names underneath).
6. Navigation buttons are created in
Claris Works or downloaded from the Authorware Library and
pasted into the Button Library.
7. Each student has their own navigational icon in the template.
8. Each student’s branching icon contains music clips, and between 3-5 scrolling text boxes containing
their poetry.
9. Student pictures appear at all times around the periphery of the screen to facilitate navigation to their
poetry.
10. Once the template is filled, all files are duplicated and loaded into the PC environment for any
necessary formatting changes.
11. Full template files are compacted on both Mac and PC.
12. These compacted files are packaged in their separate environments.

Unit 1 - Page 56 English - Academic

BLM 1.8-1 (Continued)

13. Packaged files are uploaded onto an external drive (4Gb external hard drive).
14. With the CD burner, connected to the Mac and external hard drive, the application Toast is used in
combination with the Yamaha CDWriter to burn both packaged files onto a blank CD.
15. The burned CD is verified using Toast.
To record:
Voice: Speak into a microphone, recorded on a Mac. Put into computer in a sound icon on a flow
line.
To include:
Music: Put a sound icon on the flow line. Open the icon, and load the sound from the sample file (30
seconds is recommended).
Pictures: Download from net or scan from a book, save as a JPEG. Paste it into a text icon on the

Authorware flow line.
Titles: Create them in INFINI-D or a similar animation program to be pasted into the movie icon.
Load selected music for titles into the music icon on the flowline. CD-ROMs hold
approximately 650 Mb of information.

Unit 2 - Page 1 English - Academic

Unit 2: Voices

Time: 22 hours

Unit Developers: Linda Neary, Janice Rideout, Angela Ferguson, Melanie Barrett, Tina-Marie
Sikkema

Development Date: April 2000

Unit Description

Grade 10 students in the academic course are increasingly aware of the web of issues that surrounds
them. The “Voices” unit provides students with a forum to establish the critical thinking skills necessary
for mature discussion of what are often controversial topics. “Voices” encourages students to analyse
their own and others’ perspectives and to appreciate the different voices that unite to represent society’s
multi-layered perceptions. The unit equips students with the tools they need to present their positions
persuasively in oral and written format and to clarify their own opinions about a variety of issues.
“Voices” addresses Grade 10 students’ growing responsibilities to establish independent opinions and
take active roles in society’s decision-making processes in order to find their own voices.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, Media Studies

Overall Expectations: LIV.01D, LIV.02D, LIV.03D, WRV.01D, WRV.02D, WRV.03D, WRV.04D,
WRV.05D, LGV.01D, LGV.02D, MDV.02D.

Subtask Titles (Time + Sequence)

Subtask 1 Diagnostic Activity 95 minutes
Subtask 2 How I See Things 150 minutes
Subtask 3 Point/Counterpoint 115 minutes
Subtask 4 The Power of Words 210 minutes
Subtask 5 Captivate and Motivate Your Audience 120 minutes
Subtask 6 Checkpoint 140 minutes
Subtask 7 The Great Debate 465 minutes

Unit Planning Notes

Before beginning this unit, teachers are advised to consult guidelines for antiracist and bias-free
education to ensure awareness, sensitivity, and caution in selection and delivery of materials and
issues. Teachers are advised to refer to Unit 3: Diversity, which provides more detailed resources and
suggestions for a respectful approach to controversial issues, topics, and ideas.

It is recommended that teachers encourage their students to bring a dictionary and thesaurus to class
every day or that the teacher have these readily available in the classroom.

For all writing assignments the teacher should insist students employ the writing process:
brainstorming, outline, rough work, discussion, editing, and revision (BORDER). A recommended
approach for revision, ARRRP, is suggested in Unit 1 (see BLM 1.3-2). Teachers may require
students to submit evidence of this process with written assignments.

Students should be encouraged to use a word-processing program for all final copies of writing
assignments and the teacher should be sure to provide access to computers.

Unit 2 - Page 2 English - Academic

Prior Knowledge Required

Expectations of
The Ontario Curriculum for Grade 9 students

sentence and paragraph structure

standard use of Canadian English

essay structure

research skills

use of documentation

oral presentation skills

small group skills

computer skills

use of the writing process

Task Summary

Students explore the web of issues that surrounds them through the examination of literature,
informational texts, and media. They analyse a number of arguments to determine their effectiveness and
explore their own and others’ value systems. With the assistance of the teacher-librarian they use
research skills to gather information to support their arguments.
Through the use of rhetorical devices and persuasive techniques, students develop their argumentative
skills in both oral and written form. They make arguments through a variety of products such as journal
responses, outlines, role playing, and persuasive essays. They participate in a final task, a formal debate.
Students continue the Independent Reading (Unit 1), by reading a book dealing with a controversial issue
in preparation for Unit 5. Students maintain their reading response journal and conference with the
teacher.

Culminating Activity

Students prepare and present a formal debate on a controversial issue in order to demonstrate their
proficiency with oral argumentation.

Resources

Aker, Don and David Hodgkinson, eds.
Language and Writing 9. Toronto: ITP Nelson, 1989.
ISBN 0-17-618681-6
A writing handbook
Anderson, Neil.
Media Works. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-19-540730-X
A writing handbook
Atwood, Margaret and Robert Weaver.
The Oxford Book of Canadian Short Stories in English. Toronto:
Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-540597-8
An anthology of challenging short stories
Baker-Sandbrook, Judith and Neil Graham, eds.
Thinking Through the Essay. Toronto: McGraw Hill
Ryerson, 1986. ISBN 0-07-549066-8
A writing handbook
Borovilos, John, ed.
Breaking Through - A Canadian Literary Mosaic. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 2000.
ISBN 0-13-08372-0
Borovilos, John, ed.
Images - Canada Through Literature. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1990.
ISBN 0-13-255852-1
An anthology of literature
Cheung, Mei-lin, ed.
Galaxies III. Don Mills: Addison Wesley, 1992. ISBN 0-201-50441-3
An anthology of literature

Unit 2 - Page 3 English - Academic

Close, Joanne, et al., eds.
Literature and Media 9. Toronto: ITP Nelson, 1999. ISBN 0-17-618701-4
A writing textbook
Conrad, Ronald, ed.
The Act of Writing: Canadian Essays for Composition. Toronto: McGraw Hill
Ryerson, 1990. ISBN 0-07-549792-1
A writing handbook
Crane, ed.
SightLines 10. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1999. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
An anthology of literature for Grade 10 students
Davies, Richard and Glen Kirkland, eds.
Discovering. Toronto: Gage, 1980. ISBN 0-7715-1162-0
An anthology of literature
Davies, Richard and Glen Kirkland.
Dimension. Toronto: Gage, 1986. ISBN 0-7715-6854-1
An anthology of literature
Davies, Richard and Glen Kirkland, eds.
Imaginings. Toronto: Gage, 1980. ISBN 0-7715-1104-3
An anthology of literature
Davies, Richard and Glen Kirkland, eds.
Relating. Toronto: Gage, 1990. ISBN 0-7714-1160-4
An anthology of literature
Dawe, Robert, Barry Duncan and Wendy Mathieu.
ResourceLines 9/10. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall,
1999. ISBN 0-13-012922-4
A writing textbook
Dictionary and Thesaurus
Duncan, Barry.
Mass Media and Popular Culture. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1988. ISBN 7747-1262-17
A media textbook
Geddes, Gary and Phyllis Bruce, eds.
15 Canadian Poets +5. Toronto: Oxford U. P., 1978.
ISBN 0-19-540289-8
An anthology of poetry
Gooch, Bryan N.S. and Maureen Niwa.
The Emergence of the Muse: Major Canadian Poets from
Crawford to Pratt. Toronto: Oxford V. P., 1993. ISBN 0-19-540911-6
An anthology of poetry
Hannan, Ed, et al., eds.
Perspectives Three. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1992. ISBN 0-7747-1338-0
An anthology of literature
Hilker, Douglas and Sue Harper.
Elements of English 9. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1989.
ISBN 0-7747-0575-2
A writing handbook
Hilker, Douglas, et al., eds.
Transitions. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1995. ISBN 0-7747--151-X
An anthology of literature
Karpinski, Eva C. and Ian Lea, eds.
Pens of Many Colours. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1995.
ISBN 0-7747-3146-X
Kedves, Alice Barlow, et al., eds.
SightLines 9. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1999. ISBN 0-13-012906-2
An anthology of literature
Luengo, Anthony.
Canadian Writer’s Companion. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
ISBN 0-13-4439200-1
A writing handbook
Messenger, W.E. and W.H. New, eds.
A 20th Century Anthology. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
ISBN 0-13-934944-8
An anthology of literature
Parker, John F.
The Writer’s Workshop. Don Mills: Addison Wesley, 1982. ISBN 0-201-05724-7
A writing textbook

Unit 2 - Page 4 English - Academic

Saliani, Dom and Nova Morine, eds.
Crossroads. Toronto: Gage, 1999. ISBN. 0-7715-1324-0
An anthology of literature
Sandbrook, Judith Barker.
Essays Patterns and Perspectives. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 1992.
ISBN 0-19-540839-X
A collection of essays
Sebrank, Patrick.
Writers Inc. Sourcebook. DC Health and Co., 1995. ISBN 0-669-38553-0
A writing handbook
Sebrank, Patrick, et al.
Writers’ Inc. Wilmington, Mass: Great Source Education Group, 1996.
ISBN 0-669-95-068-8
A writing handbook
Sebranek, Patrick, et al.
Write Source 2000. Wilmington, Mass: Great Source Education Group, 1989.
ISBN 0-17-618700-6
A writing handbook with reproducible blacklines
Teacher-librarian
Weaver, Robert.
Canadian Short Stories. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-19-540597-8
An anthology of challenging short stories
Wood, Jeffrey and Lynn.
Short Story Workshop. Cambridge: Cambridge V. P., 1995.
ISBN 0-521-378060
A collection of short stories with teacher guides

Subtask 1: Diagnostic Activity

Time: 95 minutes

Description

In order to assess students’ abilities to make persuasive arguments and to categorize supports for
arguments effectively, the teacher assesses students’ prior knowledge through the use of a persuasive
piece of writing. The teacher reviews students' knowledge of the essay format.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

WRV.03D - use a variety of organizational techniques to present ideas and information logically and
coherently in written work.

Specific Expectations

WR1.03D - sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research (e.g.,
verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify significant
omissions that need to be addressed);
WR2.02D - produce written work for a variety of purposes, with a focus on interpreting and analysing
information, ideas, themes, and issues and supporting opinions with convincing evidence (e.g., state and
support an opinion; compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in two different works; explain
how the images or setting in a work of fiction contribute to the overall theme);
WR5.08D - use knowledge of a wide range of spelling patterns, rules, and strategies to analyse and
correct spelling errors;
WR5.10D - use a variety of resources to correct errors in spelling (e.g., dictionaries, spell checkers);

Unit 2 - Page 5 English - Academic

LG2.01D - communicate orally in group discussions for different purposes, with a focus on identifying
explicit and implicit ideas and comparing and contrasting key concepts and supporting details;
LG2.02D - communicate in group discussions by assigning tasks fairly and equitably; using verbal and
non-verbal cues to signal a change in topic or speaker; contributing ideas, supporting interpretations and
viewpoints; extending and questioning the ideas of others; summarizing the progress of the group’s work;
checking for understanding; and negotiating consensus when appropriate;
LG2.03D - apply techniques of effective listening and demonstrate an understanding of oral presentations
by summarizing presenters’ arguments and explaining how vocabulary, body language, tone, and visual
aids enhance presentations (e.g., make and confirm or revise predictions; identify the purposes and
perspective of a presentation; analyse the ideas and arguments presented; discuss the use of visual aids in
a presentation).

Subtask Planning Notes

This activity assesses students’ prior knowledge of essay structure and their abilities to develop and
organize effective arguments. As such, this demands that the teacher provides minimal guidance.
However, teachers should observe students’ abilities to formulate and organize arguments closely.

BLM 2.1-1 – Sample Persuasive Essay T-Chart can be given as a board note or made into an
overhead transparency.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Brainstorming

Classifying

Collaborative/Co-operative Learning

Discussion

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually

Students working in small groups
1. The teacher continues to provide the opportunity for students to read on a regular basis in class as
part of the Independent Reading component of the course. Teacher reminds students that their
independent reading selection should be linked to the theme of the unit. Students maintain a reading
response journal. The teacher continues to monitor student progress.
2. The teacher recalls the idea of essay structure with students.
3. The teacher writes a statement that will trigger student interest such as “Homework should/should
not be assigned to students on a daily basis on the board”.
4. The teacher allows students 30 minutes in class to complete a persuasive essay on the given topic.
These are collected for anecdotal assessment. As well, the teacher observes student writing of the
essay in order to determine what level of review and teaching of concepts is required.
5. As a review, the teacher has students recall the arguments they presented in the diagnostic activity
and lists these on the blackboard. Using BLM 2.1-1 – Sample Persuasive Essay T-Chart, the teacher
helps students develop additional arguments for the pro and con sides of the issue. The teacher
indicates that all ideas should be included in the initial brainstorm and then the validity and
credibility of the ideas should be analysed.
6. The teacher and students collaborate to develop criteria for a persuasive argument. The teacher
assists the class in grouping supports and in deleting support that proves to be irrelevant once the
criteria have been established. The teacher stresses the importance of organizing ideas and
developing sufficient, coherent support.
7. The teacher assigns BLM 2.1-2 – Persuasive Argument. This activity reviews the students’ ability to
complete a persuasive essay framework and organize ideas into valid and effective criteria.

Unit 2 - Page 6 English - Academic

8. The teacher instructs groups to present their arguments and provides anecdotal comments. The focus
of the assessment should be on the development of criteria, the organization of ideas, and the
inclusion of sufficient, coherent support.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Introduction Anecdotal Record

Diagnostic assessment of persuasive essay outlines focussing on structure, organization, and support
is used.

Anecdotal assessment of group activity for learning skills is used.

Resources

Blackline Masters

BLM 2.1-1 – Sample Persuasive Essay T-Chart
BLM 2.1-2 – Persuasive Argument

Subtask 2: How I See Things

Time: 150 minutes

Description

Through the examination of short stories, students are introduced to the terms values, morals, value
systems, and tolerance and the idea that value systems influence perspectives on issues. This subtask also
examines debatable issues and how they pertain to different aspects of a student’s life. Students employ
critical thinking skills and practise organizational and analytical skills through categorization.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LGV.01D - use knowledge of vocabulary and language conventions to speak, write, and read
competently and effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences, using a level of language
appropriate to the context.

Specific Expectations

LI1.04D - use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support
interpretations (e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short
story; select quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);
LI1.06D - present sufficient significant evidence from a text to support opinions and judgements (e.g.,
defend in a debate a controversial statement from a short essay, or an action by a character in a story;
incorporate quotations from a play in an essay about the pattern of imagery in the text);
WR1.03D - sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research (e.g.,
verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify significant
omissions that need to be addressed);
WR2.02D - produce written work for a variety of purposes, with a focus on interpreting and analysing
information, ideas, themes, and issues and supporting opinions with convincing evidence (e.g., state and
support an opinion; compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in two different works; explain
how the images or setting in a work of fiction contribute to the overall theme);

Unit 2 - Page 7 English - Academic

WR3.04D - use plot structure and character portrayal to present conflicts in a short story (e.g., introduce
a conflict in the first half of a short story and provide the resolution of the conflict in the second half;
describe two characters’ different reactions to the same event to prepare for a later clash between them);
WR45.07D - use verb voice (i.e., active and passive) to suit purpose and audience;
LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;
LG2.01D - communicate orally in group discussions for different purposes, with a focus on identifying
explicit and implicit ideas and comparing and contrasting key concepts and supporting details.

Subtask Planning Notes

As a vehicle for response to ideas raised during this unit, students keep a learning log/journal. This is
different from the reading response journal in that it is less formal and is not used for summative
assessment. It is a forum for teacher/student dialogue and establishes a non-threatening environment
for communication.

Teachers need to remind students to purchase a journal(s) (i.e., spiral type, bound, etc.). Students
maintain an ongoing reading response journal as part of the Independent Reading component of the
course. They also make extensive use of a learning log/journal throughout the course. Students may
use separate sections of a binder for these two purposes or purchase two “journals”.

Before assigning the journal response for homework, the teacher should teach a mini-lesson to
review the correct use of pronouns and pronoun and antecedent agreement.

The teacher may provide newspapers (local, national, etc.) to help students brainstorm and identify
issues.

The teacher may direct students to watch a news program and write down topics discussed.

The teacher may begin the discussion of issues by reading a poem or short story that deals with the
theme of an interconnected web of issues. See Resources for suggested literature and alternate
literature study suggestions.

As an extension or optional activity the teacher may wish to show students clips from local news
programs and have students define whether the topics addressed are issues or human interest stories
and categorize the issues.

In order to save time, the teacher may wish to provide BLM 2.2-2 – The Issues Web as a student
handout.

As issues generated for student issue webs may be sensitive for some students, teachers are cautioned
to be aware of stereotype and bias in the selection of issues.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Brainstorming

Classifying

Collaborative/Co-operative Learning

Discussion

Direct Teaching

Students working as a whole class

Students working in small groups

Students working individually

Unit 2 - Page 8 English - Academic

Note: Prior to the start of this subtask, the teacher assigns two short stories (“And the Lucky Winner Is”
by Monica Hughes and “Lather and Nothing Else” by Hernando Tellez) to be read for homework.
Students are assigned BLM 2.2-0 – Short Story Study Questions and are instructed to complete the
questions for homework.
1. The teacher writes the following definition of “issue” on the blackboard. An issue is: “A point in
question; an important subject of debate or litigation; a controversial topic; a subject of contention
(dispute or argument)”.
2. The teacher discusses the definition and clarifies words such as litigation, dispute, contention, etc..
The teacher has students write the definition in their notebooks.
3. The teacher instructs students to individually brainstorm a list of issues that they know about in their
notebooks for 3-5 minutes.
4. The teacher provides BLM 2.2-1 – Types of Issues. The teacher discusses the definitions to ensure
student understanding.
5. The teacher provides BLM 2.2-2 – The Issues Web. Students, in groups of three or four, discuss,
compare, and categorize their brainstormed list of issues under the provided headings.
6. The teacher provides chart paper and markers and instructs each group to consolidate group
members’ Issues Webs into one, incorporating all issues under specific headings.
7. Student groups post their completed charts around the classroom.
8. The teacher instructs the students to examine peer charts and note any different classifications of
issues or any listings that they would consider human interest stories. The teacher provides additional
issues for categories which may be short on examples of issues and adds any significant issues not
mentioned using the teacher resource. (See BLM 2.2-3 – Teacher Resource: Suggested Issues.)
9. Through a guided, whole class discussion, the teacher asks students to discuss their observations of
the different groups’ Issues Webs. The teacher leads the class to the conclusion that issues can be
approached from many angles but that they have a primary base within one category. For example,
Separatism is primarily a political issue but it may also be a local issue (depending on where one
resides); a social issue (because it is a clash between two language groups); an historical issue (based
on the rights of Canadian settlers); etc.
10. As a whole class, develop a colour-coding system for each category on the Issues Web. For example,
environmental issues may be green, local may be orange, etc.
11. The teacher directs students to complete their Issues Webs in their notebooks, drawing from
information around the room. Students decide the primary category for the issue and place a colourcoded
checkmark beside the issue to indicate other applicable categories it may be placed under.
12. The teacher moves about the classroom observing students’ correct application of the Issues Web.
13. Upon students’ completion of the Issues Webs, the teacher provides students with a class note on
Value Systems (BLM 2.2-4) and thoroughly discusses the content to ensure student understanding of
the terminology.
14. The teacher reviews homework questions orally from BLM 2.2-0 – Short Story Study Questions with
an emphasis on linking the answers provided by students to what they have learned about the
influence of values on decision-making issues from their classroom instruction.
15. The teacher instructs students to respond to the journal question on BLM 2.2-0 – Short Story Study
Questions and assigns the journal for homework.
16. The teacher collects the journal responses and assesses these anecdotally.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Observation Anecdotal Record

Unit 2 - Page 9 English - Academic

Formative

Observation of group dynamics during small group work.

Anecdotal assessment of students’ Issues Webs to ensure understanding of categorization and the
interconnected nature of issues.

Anecdotal assessment of students’ journal responses.

Adaptations

The teacher may wish to supply the Issues Web to students with IEPs.

As an enrichment activity the teacher may have one or two students recreate their completed, colour
coded Issues Web on bristol board to be posted in the classroom for the duration of the Voices unit.

The teacher may designate symbols to indicate categories for students who have difficulty perceiving
colours.

As an enrichment activity the teacher may provide students with a current copy of a national
newspaper and ask students to identify the issues referenced and add them to their Issues Webs.

Resources

Burke, Norah. “The Blue Bead” – short story in Kedves, Alice Barlow, et al., eds.
SightLines 9.

Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1999. ISBN 0-13-012906-2
A short story about a young girl in India who cherishes a blue bead.
Callaghan, Morley. “The Two Fisherman” – short story in Davies, Richard and Glen Kirkland, eds.

Discovering. Toronto: Gage, 1990. ISBN 0-7715-1162-0
A young man must decide to follow the crowd or stand up for a new friend.
Crane, ed. The Earth Charter in
SightLines 10. NGO’s Earth Summit 1992. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall,
2000. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
Deal, Borden. “The Taste of Melon” – short story in Kedves, Alice Baralow et al., eds.
SightLines 9.

Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-13-012906-2
A story of a young boy’s fight for recognition from peers. He deals with a moral dilemma.
Hughes, Monica. “And the Lucky Winner Is” – short story in Saliani, Dom and Nora Morine, eds.

Crossroads. Toronto: Gage, 1999. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
A short story about a boy with telekinetic powers who must make a decision on whether or not to use
these powers to win a lottery.
Tellez, Hernando. “Lather and Nothing Else” - short story in Crane, ed.
SightLines 10. Scarborough:
Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
This short story relates the fears and anger of a barber caught in the middle of a revolutionary war.

Blackline Masters

BLM 2. 2-0 – Short Story Study Questions
Questions and a journal response for the short stories “And the Lucky Winner Is” by Monica Hughes and
“Lather and Nothing Else” by Hernando Tellez.
BLM 2.2-1 – Types of Issues
A class note outlining the types of issues and how issues can be classified.
BLM 2.2-2 – The Issues Web
A map of types of issues demonstrating how issues are interconnected.
BLM 2.2-3 – Teacher Resource: Suggested Issues
A listing of suggested issues under specified categories.
BLM 2.2-4 – Value Systems
A note identifying values, morals, personal values systems, changing values and different values.

Unit 2 - Page 10 English - Academic

Subtask 3: Point/Counterpoint

Time: 115 minutes

Description

This subtask introduces the skills needed for debating through the use of an activity called
Point/Counterpoint. The focus of this subtask is to develop and hone students’ argumentative skills in the
areas of: formulating, refuting, paraphrasing, listening, and summarizing. A follow up and completion of
the assignment of this subtask is the focus of Subtask 6.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

WRV.03D - use a variety of organizational techniques to present ideas and information logically and
coherently in written work;
LGV.02D - use listening techniques and oral communication skills to participate in classroom
discussions and more formal activities, such as dramatizing, presenting, and debating, for a variety of
purposes and audiences.

Specific Expectations

WR1.01D - use listening techniques and oral communication skills to participate in classroom
discussions and more formal activities, such as dramatizing, presenting, and debating, for a variety of
purposes and audiences;
WR1.03D - sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research (e.g.,
verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify significant
omissions that need to be addressed);
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama);
LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;
LG2.03D - apply techniques of effective listening and demonstrate an understanding of oral presentations
by summarizing presenters’ arguments and explaining how vocabulary, body language, tone, and visual
aids enhance presentations (e.g., make and confirm or revise predictions; identify the purposes and
perspective of a presentation; analyse the ideas and arguments presented; discuss the use of visual aids in
a presentation);
LG2.05D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama);
LG2.08D - analyse their own and others’ oral presentations, identifying strengths and weaknesses and
developing and carrying out plans for improvement.

Unit 2 - Page 11 English - Academic

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher may wish to alternate student judges between rounds.

This activity could be done throughout the unit. The teacher may wish to incorporate timely topics or
school issues into the game.

All rounds of Point/Counterpoint do not need to be completed by the class. The teacher should
consider students’ prior knowledge of debate and oral communication skills, class time constraints,
and student demonstration of skills discussed in Teaching/Learning 1 in order to discern the number
of rounds to complete. The teacher’s discretion should be used.

The teacher may wish to make the activity more challenging by transferring candy to the other team’s
bowl each time a team member uses inaccurate grammar in presenting a point, paraphrase, refute, or
summary. The teacher may wish to focus on a specific aspect of grammar and should review this
concept before the activity begins. Suggested focusses include: subject/verb agreement, verb tense, or
active and passive voice. Refer to Expectations Summary (BLM 1.2-3) for a summary of
grammar/language expectations.

The teacher should remind students to be sensitive to the feelings and opinions of others during the
activity and ensure that students debate the issues presented rather than attack the beliefs of others.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Debating

Expressing Another Point of View

Problem-Solving Strategies

Retelling

Prompts

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually
1. The teacher asks students to write down a definition of the word “debate” in their notebooks. As a
class, develop a common definition. The teacher provides the etymological background of the word
to the class and discusses the historical and cultural context of debating. For example, the teacher
might explain the idea of a talking stick used in a First Nations’ discussion forum. The teacher
explains that there are different forums for debating and that debating has many levels of formality.
As well, the teacher explains that individuals have been debating all of their lives. For example, a
child asking for a cookie, a teen negotiating for the car, etc.
2. The teacher asks students “What kind of skills are needed in debating?” Student answers might be
patience, use of voice, quick thinking, etc. The teacher adds formulating arguments, refuting
arguments, listening, summarizing, extending arguments, and paraphrasing to the suggestions. The
teacher explains what these skills entail and, using the statement “Seeing a concert is better than
owning the CD”, models each skill. As well, the teacher informs students that a good debater is
someone who can argue either side of an issue, regardless of his or her personal opinion.
3. The teacher introduces the activity Point/Counterpoint to practise debating skills. Based on the issues
and developed arguments that occur during the activity, students write a persuasive essay outline for
homework.
4. The teacher reviews the protocol for the activity with the students (See BLM 2.3-1 –
Point/Counterpoint: Protocol). A suggested way to ensure protocol is followed is to use a reward
system. For example, the teacher has two bowls of candy (one for each team). When a team member
breaks a method of protocol, a piece of candy is transferred to the other team’s bowl. As well, the
teacher may want to use the candy as a reward for insightful arguments. At the end of each round, the
winning team is rewarded with an established number of candies from the other team's bowl.
5. The teacher asks for two students to volunteer to be judges. The two judges decide which team wins
each round. Judges collaborate and give justification for their decisions. In the first round of the
activity judges also summarize student arguments.

Unit 2 - Page 12 English - Academic

6. The teacher divides the class into two teams. Students place their desks in rows facing the opposing
team.
7. The teacher explains to the teams that the issues given will increase in level of difficulty with each
round. As well, requirements for the debating teams also increase. Using BLM 2.3-2 –
Point/Counterpoint Rounds and Topics, the teacher writes the structure of the first round on the
board.
8. Student teams choose three speakers before the topic for round one is revealed. It is decided which
team will speak first. The team that argues first has an advantage in that the team can choose which
side of the issue to argue. Therefore this privilege shifts with each round.
9. The teacher delivers the topic for round one. Student speakers fulfill the roles specified for round one
on BLM 2.3-2 and follow allotted time constraints. The teacher may wish to choose timers to assist
with this. The judges decide which team wins the round. This process is followed for each
subsequent round.
10. At the end of the activity, the teacher rewards the teams with their bowls of candy. Students choose
one of the topics debated and write a persuasive essay outline for homework.
11. The teacher checks student outlines for completion and informs students that they will be developing
these outlines into persuasive essays in a week’s time. (See Subtask 6 Subtask Planning Notes). On
this date students are expected to bring two pieces of secondary research supporting the stance taken
in their outlines to class. Therefore, students are instructed to do independent research before
Subtask 6.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Observation Anecdotal Record

Formative

Anecdotal assessment of student arguments at the end of each round of play.

Learning skills assessed through a homework check.

Adaptations

Allow ESL and identified students more time to express arguments or refutes or for paraphrasing.

Allow hearing-impaired students the option of taking on the role of timer.

Resources

Blackline Masters

BLM 2.3-1 – Point/Counterpoint: Protocol
A list of rules for the activity Point/Counterpoint.
BLM 2.3-2 – Point/Counterpoint Rounds and Topics
An outline of topics and structure for the activity Point/Counterpoint.

Unit 2 - Page 13 English - Academic

Subtask 4: The Power of Words

Time: 210 minutes

Description

Through reading a personal essay, students learn about tone and the use of rhetorical devices. This
subtask introduces students to the types of sources and types of support used in persuasive writing.
Students deconstruct persuasive pieces of writing to evaluate the credibility and validity of the argument
and the secondary sources.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LIV.01D - read and demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational texts, both
contemporary and from historical periods;
LIV.03D - identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and
informational texts.

Specific Expectations

LI1.06D - present sufficient significant evidence from a text to support opinions and judgements (e.g.,
defend in a debate a controversial statement from a short essay, or an action by a character in a story;
incorporate quotations from a play in an essay about the pattern of imagery in the text);
LI2.03D - use knowledge of elements of opinion pieces, such as overt statement of a position or opinion,
type of diction, tone, paragraphing, transition words and phrases, selective supporting detail, allusions,
and appeals to authority, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., relate the position taken
to the tone used in an editorial; refer to an encyclopedia to clarify a historical allusion used in a
newspaper column; write an opinion piece for the school newspaper);
LI3.02D - explain how authors use stylistic devices, such as allusion, contrast, hyperbole,
understatement, oxymoron, irony, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing (e.g., explain
the effects of the contradictory emotions or qualities expressed in an oxymoron; compare the poetic
devices used in two poems on a similar theme; do research to understand a mythical allusion in a piece of
literature or an advertisement and explain how the allusion enhances the theme or message in the text);
WR1.03D - sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research (e.g.,
verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify significant
omissions that need to be addressed);
LG1.01D - identify examples of the use of idioms, euphemisms, slang, dialect, acronyms, academic
language, technical terms, and standard Canadian English in oral and written work, and explain why the
usage is effective in its context;
LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;
LG1.06D - recognize, describe, and correct sentence errors in oral and written language (e.g., run-on
sentence, comma splice, dangling modifier);
LG2.01D - communicate orally in group discussions for different purposes, with a focus on identifying
explicit and implicit ideas and comparing and contrasting key concepts and supporting details.

Unit 2 - Page 14 English - Academic

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher should approach the issue of welfare with caution, sensitivity, and an awareness of bias
and stereotyping. Teachers will need to be vigilant when discussing these issues in the classroom.

The teacher should be aware of and sensitive about stereotypes, bias, and student backgrounds when
selecting articles for this subtask.

The teacher may wish to assign the reading of the articles for homework prior to the lesson.

The teacher may wish to work through an outline with the whole class before assigning the outline.

The teacher may wish to develop an outline framework for the articles selected in advance to assist
students with the outline activity.

The teacher may wish to invite a guest who is directly involved with the issue being discussed to
speak to the class prior to reading the articles.

Alternate works for literature study are suggested in Subtask 4 Resources.

The teacher may want to facilitate a class discussion about the topic before or after the articles are
read to allow students an opportunity to express their opinions and share their personal experiences
with the issue being discussed.

The teacher may wish to assign the crossword as a timed competition.

Before assigning the journal response, the teacher should teach a mini lesson to review the use of
compound and complex sentences and the correction of sentence errors such as run-on sentences,
fragments, and comma splices.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Learning Log/Journal

Jigsaw

Advance Organizer

Inquiry

Students working as a whole class

Students working in small groups

Students working individually
1. The teacher divides the class into pairs or small groups and distributes a slip of paper on which is
written one of a variety of tones (serious, sarcastic, humourous, angry, sad, friendly, etc.) to group.
2. The teacher allows students a few minutes to determine how a nursery rhyme, such as “Little Miss
Muffet”, could be recited using the tone that is on the slip of paper they have been given. One student
from each group recites the nursery rhyme to the class. The class tries to determine what tone the
presenter is using.
3. The teacher defines the word tone and asks students how they were able to determine which tone
each speaker was using. Likely responses include: facial expression, body language, intonation,
inflection, pauses, pace, and volume.
4. The teacher explains that writers use tone as a way to influence, persuade, or create emotion in a
reader but that since they cannot use sound or physical expression they must create tone with written
language.
5. The teacher reads “Is There Life After Welfare” by Annie Downey and asks students to focus on the
tone while listening to the story.
6. The teacher assigns BLM 2.4-0 – ‘Is There Life After Welfare’ Literature Study and discusses
students’ responses to the questions to ensure student understanding of the use of tone in persuasive
writing. The teacher assigns the journal response on BLM 2.4-0 for homework.
7. The teacher provides BLM 2.4-1 – Rhetorical Devices to the students. The teacher discusses the
content to ensure student understanding of the concepts.
8. The students complete BLM 2.4-2 – Rhetorical Devices Crossword for homework to provide an
opportunity to apply what they have learned from BLM 2.4-1.

Unit 2 - Page 15 English - Academic

9. The teacher divides the class into groups of four and assigns each group a short, opinion-based
article, editorial, or essay to read. These pieces should be on current issues. Half of the class reads
articles defending the issue and the other half reads articles that refute the issue. Students read the
piece assigned to them and determine the writers opinion, tone, and rhetorical devices used.
10. Students record these observations with a short explanation of how these devices have influenced the
effectiveness of the piece and submit their findings for anecdotal assessment.
11. The teacher gives students BLM 2.4-3 – Supporting an Opinion and BLM 2.4-5 – Evaluating Your
Essay for Fairness and Logical Reasoning. The teacher discusses these with the class to ensure
understanding of the concepts presented. The teacher completes BLM 2.4-4 – Identification of Types
of Supports with the class or assigns it to be completed independently for homework.
12. In their groups, the students deconstruct the article previously read and create an outline which
identifies the author’s opinion, the major arguments, and the types of supports used to justify the
opinion.
13. Students evaluate the strength of the author’s opinion based on the types, amount, and validity of the
support used.
14. Students use BLM 2.4-6 – Credibility of Sources Checklist to determine whether the source read is
credible.
15. The teacher creates new groups of four by combining two students who have read articles defending
the issue and two students who have read articles refuting the issue.
16. In their new groups, students trade and read each other’s articles. Using their outlines as a reference,
students compare the opinions, arguments, supports, and credibility of the articles.
17. The new group comes to a consensus on which article is the most convincing, based not on personal
perspective, but on the credibility and support provided and the persuasive language used.
18. Students submit their outline and credibility checklist for assessment.
19. Students write about their personal opinion on the topic in their learning log/journal. They must use
at least three supports for their opinion and discuss whether or not the articles read in class have
influenced their opinion and in what ways.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task

Response Journal

Observation

Anecdotal Record

Formative

The teacher assesses the crossword to ensure that students have understood the rhetorical devices.

The teacher assesses students’ participation in small group discussions for learning skills.

The teacher anecdotally assesses the groups’ recognition and evaluation of the use of rhetorical
devices and persuasive language in the article read.

The teacher anecdotally assesses student outline and credibility checklist for understanding of terms
and concepts.

The teacher anecdotally assesses student journal responses for application of adequate supports for
opinions.

Adaptations

The teacher may wish to vary the group size according to students’ abilities.

Pair appropriately IEP-identified and ESL students with stronger students to accommodate reading
difficulties and assist with the article deconstruction.

Unit 2 - Page 16 English - Academic

To offer enrichment opportunities, the teacher may wish to provide both the defending and the
refuting article to certain students and allow them to complete the assignment individually.

The teacher should provide the words for the chosen nursery rhyme to accommodate ESL students or
students who may not be familiar with it.

Resources

Downey, Annie. “Is There Life After Welfare?” – personal essay in Crane, ed
. SightLines 10.
Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
Kaur, Pretam. “As the Buffaloes Bathed” – short story in Crane, ed.
SightLines 10. Scarborough:
Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
Various Periodical and Newspaper Resources

Maclean’s, Equinox, The Globe and Mail, The National Post, The Toronto Star, Scientific American, etc.
Various Television Resources
The Discovery Channel, The Learning Channel, A & E,
The Nature of Things, The Fifth Estate, The
Magazine, etc.

Blackline Masters

BLM 2.4-0 – ‘Life After Welfare’ Literature Study
Word Study and questions on the article “Is There Life After Welfare” by Annie Downey.
BLM 2.4-1 – Rhetorical Devices
A class note on the use of rhetoric in persuasive writing.
BLM 2.4-2 – Rhetorical Devices Crossword
A student worksheet/crossword to assist with the understanding of rhetorical devices.
BLM 2.4-3 – Supporting An Opinion
A class note on sources, their credibility and types of support for a persuasive essay.
BLM 2.4-4 – Identification of Types of Supports
A worksheet on identifying types of supports.
BLM 2.4-5 – Evaluating Essay for Fairness and Logical Reasoning
A class note on how to avoid faulty reasoning.
BLM 2.4-6 – Credibility of Sources Checklist
A student checklist to assess credibility of sources.

Subtask 5: Captivate and Motivate Your Audience

Time: 120 minutes

Description

By reading poetry and song lyrics, students are introduced to the use of persuasion in creative media
works. Students apply their knowledge of research skills, persuasion, and rhetorical devices to create a
poem or song.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Language, Writing, Media Studies

Overall Expectations

LIV.03D - identify and explain the effect of specific elements of style in a range of literary and
informational texts;
WRV.01D - use a range of print and electronic sources to gather information and explore ideas for
written work;

Unit 2 - Page 17 English - Academic

MDV.02D - use knowledge of a range of media forms, purposes, and audiences to create media works,
and use established criteria to assess the effectiveness of the works.

Specific Expectations

LI1.04D - use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support
interpretations (e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short
story; select quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);
LI2.02D - use knowledge of elements of poetry, such as stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm, punctuation, free
verse, imagery, and sound devices, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., write a lyric
or ballad in rhyming couplets; present a choral reading of a poem, emphasizing onomatopoeia);
LI3.01D - compare the use of diction and syntax in the work of different authors and explain how these
elements enhance the theme or message (e.g., compare the use of sentence variety in paragraphs by two
different authors; identify examples of archaic diction in literature from any historical period and give
modern-English equivalents);
LI3.02D - explain how authors use stylistic devices, such as allusion, contrast, hyperbole,
understatement, oxymoron, irony, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing (e.g., explain
the effects of the contradictory emotions or qualities expressed in an oxymoron; compare the poetic
devices used in two poems on a similar theme; do research to understand a mythical allusion in a piece of
literature or an advertisement and explain how the allusion enhances the theme or message in the text);
WR1.02D - locate and summarize information and ideas from print and electronic sources, including
interviews, surveys, statistical data banks, reports, periodicals, and news-groups (e.g., conduct an
electronic search for information on regional Canadian authors; summarize and paraphrase information
and ideas in point-form notes and in graphic organizers);
WR1.04D - use the information and ideas generated, researched, and evaluated to develop the content of
written work;
WR2.02D - produce written work for a variety of purposes, with a focus on interpreting and analysing
information, ideas, themes, and issues and supporting opinions with convincing evidence (e.g., state and
support an opinion; compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in two different works; explain
how the images or setting in a work of fiction contribute to the overall theme);
WR2.04D - select a voice and an appropriate level of language to suit the form, purpose, and audience of
their writing (e.g., use an impersonal voice and formal language in an academic essay; use everyday
vocabulary and colloquial phrasing to engage the interest of an audience of peers);
WR5.01D - identify borrowed information, ideas, and quotations and use a variety of techniques to
incorporate them smoothly into written work and independent research projects (e.g., provide a context
for quoted material; use transition words and phrases to link information from different sources; include
a brief bibliography to identify reference materials consulted);
WR5.09 - spell specific historical, academic, and technical terms correctly;
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama).

Unit 2 - Page 18 English - Academic

Subtask Planning Notes

The teacher may wish to have a guest from a local social or environmental agency visit the class to
speak about an issue of concern to the school's specific community.

The teacher may wish to extend this activity by having students chose one issue presented in the
student poems/songs and have the students develop and implement a community action plan for
resolving the problem. For example, if the students are concerned with the pollution of a local water
system, have them organize a clean up day by enlisting the help of the local community.

See Resources for a list of alternate poems and songs to use at the beginning of the lesson.

The teacher should be aware of the personal connection some students may make with the issue
selected for their poems and be sensitive in the assessment of the assignment content.

Before students begin peer editing, the teacher should review the use of a dictionary, thesaurus, and
word-processing language tools in the use of vocabulary selection and correction of spelling errors.

The teacher may wish to have students share their poems with their classmates.

The teacher should be aware of language or bias in song lyrics and use caution in selecting
appropriate materials.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Research

Homework

Discussion

Direct Teaching

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually
1. The teacher reads the poem “Montreal Trees” by Anne Cimon to the class and discusses the
questions on BLM 2.5-1 – Montreal Trees Literature Study. The teacher uses students’ responses to
the questions to initiate a discussion about the loss of green spaces as a result of urban sprawl.
2. The teacher directs students to examine the larger context of the issue by playing the song “Does
Anybody Hear” by Bruce Cockburn.
3. The teacher facilitates a discussion about how both Cimon and Cockburn use poetry as a vehicle to
alert people to an issue and motivate them to examine their catalytic role in either promoting or
solving the issue.
4. The teacher explains that both authors have used specific formats to reach their target audiences. The
teacher poses the questions:
a) Which audience is each author targeting?
b) Why do you think that the chosen format would be affective for this audience?
c) Which piece is most effective for you? Why?
5. The teacher assigns the journal response from BLM 2.5-1 – Montreal Trees Literature Study for
homework and assesses it anecdotally.
6. The teacher asks students to refer to their Issues Webs to identify types of environmental and social
issues.
7. The class brainstorms any additional environmental and social issues not represented in this list. The
teacher writes the issues on the board and instructs students to include the additional findings onto
their Issues Webs.
8. Students are provided with BLM 2.5-2 – Words for Humanity. The teacher discusses the assignment
to ensure students understand the requirements.
9. The teacher briefly reviews research skills with the class.
10. The teacher allows class time for student research utilizing the teacher-librarian to assist with this
task. As well, time should be provided for the editing of rough drafts.

Unit 2 - Page 19 English - Academic

11. Students submit the finished product for assessment. The teacher assesses students’ poems/songs
using BLM 2.5-3- Rating Scale for Persuasive Poem. Students’ documentation of research is assessed
using BLM 2.5-4 – Rating Scale for Works Cited Format. The credibility of secondary sources is also
assessed using BLM 2.5-5 – Credibility of Sources Teacher Checklist.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Performance Task Anecdotal Record

Checklist

Rating Scale

Formative

The teacher assesses students’ journal responses to the literature studies with anecdotal comments.

Summative

The teacher assesses students’ poems for the effective use of persuasive language and support for an
opinion using a rating scale.

The teacher assesses students’ Works Cited list to ensure correct format using a rating scale.

The teacher assesses students’ research notes to ensure the use of credible sources using a checklist.

Adaptations

For research purposes only, the teacher may wish to pair identified IEP and ESL students with
stronger English students.

The teacher may wish to provide resources for students who may have difficulty locating resources
themselves.

As an enrichment activity the teacher may have students look into the historical reality of Cimon’s
poem “Montreal Trees” by researching events in Montreal’s or Quebec’s histories such as Jacques
Cartier's arrival in 1534, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759, the Quebec Act of 1774, or the
“sign law” of 1988.

As a second enrichment activity, students may compose music to accompany their song lyrics.

Resources

Print

Callwood, June. “The Country of the Poor” – article in Conrad, Ronald, ed. The Act of Writing:
Canadian Essays for Composition. Toronto: McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1990. ISBN 0-07-54979201
Cameron, Stevie. “Please Come For Dinner” – novel excerpt in Crane, ed. SightLines 10. Scarborough:
Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
Cimon, Anne. “Montreal Trees” – poem in Borovilos, John, ed. Images: Canada Through Literature.
Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-13-255852-1
Dumont, Marilyn. “Not Just A Platform For My Dance” – poem in Crane, ed. SightLines 10.
Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3
Durrell, Lee. “State of the Arc” - case study. London: Double Day, 1986. ISBN 0-385-23668-9
Fraser, Sylvia. “My Father’s House” – memoir.
Livesay, Dorothy. “A Cup of Coffee” – short story in Borovilos, John, ed. Images: Canada Through
Literature. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1984. ISBN 0-13-2558-52-1
A short story which deals with the theme of poverty.
Maillet, Antonine. “The Trade” – short story in Crane, ed. SightLines 10. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall,
1999. ISBN 0-1308-2171-3

Unit 2 - Page 20 English - Academic

McLaren, Christie. “Suitcase Lady” - article in Conrad, Ronald, ed. The Act of Writing: Canadian Essays
for Composition. Toronto: McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1990. ISBN 0-07-54979201
Miller, G. Tyler. Living in the Environment. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1992.
ISBN 0-534-165-60-5
Newman, Peter C. “Trees are a Renewable Resource But Forests Are Not” – essay in Borovilos, John, ed.
Images: Canada Through Literature. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-13-255-852-1
Ross, Sinclair. “The Lamp at Noon” – short story in Borovilos, John, ed. Images: Canada Through
Literature. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1986. ISBN 0-13-255852-1
A short story set in the prairies during the Depression and it relates the conditions of poverty during that
time.
Suzuki, David. “Hidden Lessons” – article in Conrad, Ronald, ed. The Act of Writing: Canadian Essays
for Composition. Toronto: McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1990. ISBN 0-07-54979201
Various Magazines –
Chatelaine, Equinox, Maclean’s, etc.
Various Newspapers –
The Globe and Mail, The National Post, The Toronto Star, etc.

Video and Songs

10 000 Maniacs. “Trouble Me”,
Blind Man’s 200.

Bugajski, Richard, director.
Clearcut.

A 1992 film about clear cutting in BC’s forests.
Chapman, Tracy. “Behind the Wall”,
Tracy Chapman.

Chapman, Tracy. “The Rape of the World”,
New Beginnings.
A Civil Action. (movie)
Cockburn, Bruce. “Does Anybody Hear If a Tree Falls”,
Stealing Fire.

O’Connor, Sinead. “Famine”,
Universal Mother.

Pearl Jam. “Jeremy”,
Ten.

U2. “Red Hill Mining Town”,
The Joshua Tree.

Other

Environmental Groups
World Wildlife Federation, Artists for the Environment, Friends of Temagami, etc.
Local Social Agencies
Women’s Shelters, crisis centres, homeless shelters, missions, drug rehabilitation centres, A.A.
Local Emergency Services – Police or Hospitals
Various Television Programs – The Discover Channel, The Learning Channel,
The Nature of Things, etc.

Blackline Masters

BLM 2.5-1 – Montreal Trees Literature Study
Word Study and questions on Anne Cimon’s poem “Montreal Trees.
BLM 2.5-2 – Words for Humanity
An assignment requiring research to produce a persuasive poem or song on an environmental or social
issue.
BLM 2.5-3 – Rating Scale for a Persuasive Poem
A rating scale for a persuasive poem or song.
BLM 2.5-4 – Rating Scale for Works Cited Format
A rating scale to assess a Works Cited.
BLM 2.5-5 – Credibility of Sources-Teacher Checklist
A rating scale to assess the quality and persuasiveness of language and supports used in a media work.

Unit 2 - Page 21 English - Academic

Subtask 6: Checkpoint

Time: 140 minutes

Description

This subtask is the continuation of Subtask 3. Students discuss ideas, read informational texts, and extend
developed arguments in order to produce a persuasive essay which allows them to demonstrate their
writing skills and techniques.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LIV.01D - read and demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational texts, both
contemporary and from historical periods;
WRV.01D - use a range of print and electronic sources to gather information and explore ideas for
written work;
WRV.03D - use a variety of organizational techniques to present ideas and information logically and
coherently in written work.

Specific Expectations

LI1.02D - select and read a range of texts for different purposes, with an emphasis on recognizing the
elements of literary genres and the organization of informational materials, evaluating print and
electronic materials as sources of information, and comparing personal ideas and values with those in
texts (e.g., read multicultural short fiction to deepen their understanding of Canada’s diversity; assess the
usefulness of a manual for a software application; develop a “profile” of a character in a play by
Shakespeare or a novel and then role-play an interview with the character);
LI1.06D - present sufficient significant evidence from a text to support opinions and judgements (e.g.,
defend in a debate a controversial statement from a short essay, or an action by a character in a story;
incorporate quotations from a play in an essay about the pattern of imagery in the text);
WR1.04D - use the information and ideas generated, researched, and evaluated to develop the content of
written work;
WR2.02D - produce written work for a variety of purposes, with a focus on interpreting and analysing
information, ideas, themes, and issues and supporting opinions with convincing evidence (e.g., state and
support an opinion; compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in two different works; explain
how the images or setting in a work of fiction contribute to the overall theme).

Subtask Planning Notes

Previous to this lesson, the teacher should remind students to come prepared with their outlines and
two valid research sources complete with bibliographic information for their Works Cited list.

The teacher should teach a mini-lesson on the proper format and punctuation used to incorporate
quotations in a formal piece of writing.

The teacher may wish to find an example of an essay to model persuasive writing.

The teacher should provide access to computers for completion of final copies of the persuasive
essays.

Unit 2 - Page 22 English - Academic

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Collaborative/Co-operative Learning

Oral Explanation

Advance Organizer

Discussion

Expository Text Frames

Students working as a whole class

Students working in small groups

Students working individually
1. The teacher asks students to take out the persuasive essay outlines developed after the
Point/Counterpoint activity. The teacher checks to see that each student has completed the
independent research and has brought this research to class.
2. The teacher provides BLM 2.6-1 – What Makes a Good Persuasive Essay and BLM 2.6-2 –
Persuasive Essay Writing and the Great Canadian Game of Hockey. The teacher discusses what is
required in a persuasive essay and briefly reviews the use of rhetorical devices, transitions, paragraph
structure, and tone. The teacher gives students BLM 2.6-4 – Persuasive Essay Assessment Rubric
and reviews the levels of achievement.
3. The teacher divides students into groups based upon the topics they have chosen to argue in their
outlines. Larger groups should be divided into smaller groups of three or four. Students in groups
may be arguing opposing sides of the issue as long as the topic is the same.
4. The teacher gives students BLM 2.6-3 – Persuasive Essay Outline Framework. Using the framework
as a guide, students compare their essay outlines, share their research, and read informational texts in
order to identify valid support for their own arguments.
5. Based on their outlines and the anecdotal feedback from peers, students individually write a
persuasive essay to be marked summatively using BLM 2.6-4 – Persuasive Essay Assessment Rubric.
Students are expected to employ rhetorical devices and incorporate the research materials. Therefore,
students complete a Works Cited list to be evaluated using BLM 2.6-5 – Rating Scale for Works
Cited Format. The Works Cited list is summatively assessed.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Essay

Questions and Answers (Oral)

Self-Assessment

Anecdotal Record

Rubric

Rating Scale

Formative

Students’ outlines will be anecdotally assessed by peers.

Summative

Students’ Works Cited are evaluated for completion and format using a rating scale.

Students’ persuasive essay outlines are assessed for structure, validity, and coherence using a rating
scale.

Students’ persuasive essays will be assessed using a rubric.

Adaptations

Group sizes may be modified to accommodate students with an IEP or ESL needs.

Unit 2 - Page 23 English - Academic

Resources

Blackline Masters

BLM 2.6-1 – What Makes a Good Persuasive Essay
A class note on the organization of a persuasive essay
BLM 2.6-2 – Persuasive Essay and the Great Canadian Game of Hockey
A class note on the steps to writing a persuasive essay.
BLM 2.6-3 – Persuasive Essay Outline Framework
A student outline for a persuasive essay.
BLM 2.6-4 – Persuasive Essay Assessment Rubric
An assessment rubric to be used for formative evaluation of student persuasive essays.
BLM 2.6-5 – Rating Scale for Works Cited Format
A rating scale for the format of a Works Cited.

Subtask 7: The Great Debate

Time: 465 minutes

Description

Students prepare and present a formal debate on a controversial issue in order to demonstrate their
proficiency with oral argumentation.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

WRV.01D - use a range of print and electronic sources to gather information and explore ideas for
written work;
LGV.02D - use a range of print and electronic sources to gather information and explore ideas for written
work.

Specific Expectations

LI1.02D - select and read a range of texts for different purposes, with an emphasis on recognizing the
elements of literary genres and the organization of informational materials, evaluating print and
electronic materials as sources of information, and comparing personal ideas and values with those in
texts (e.g., read multicultural short fiction to deepen their understanding of Canada’s diversity; assess the
usefulness of a manual for a software application; develop a “profile” of a character in a play by
Shakespeare or a novel and then role-play an interview with the character);
LI1.04D - use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support
interpretations (e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short
story; select quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);
LI1.06D - present sufficient significant evidence from a text to support opinions and judgements (e.g.,
defend in a debate a controversial statement from a short essay, or an action by a character in a story;
incorporate quotations from a play in an essay about the pattern of imagery in the text);
LI2.03D - use knowledge of elements of opinion pieces, such as overt statement of a position or opinion,
type of diction, tone, paragraphing, transition words and phrases, selective supporting detail, allusions,
and appeals to authority, to understand and interpret examples of the genre (e.g., relate the position taken
to the tone used in an editorial; refer to an encyclopedia to clarify a historical allusion used in a
newspaper column; write an opinion piece for the school newspaper);

Unit 2 - Page 24 English - Academic

WR1.01D - investigate potential topics by formulating questions, identifying information needs and
purposes for writing, and developing research plans to gather data (e.g., identify and rank focus
questions; identify key words and electronic search terms to structure research; determine which sources
of information are most relevant to the purpose for writing);
WR1.03D - sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research (e.g.,
verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify significant
omissions that need to be addressed);
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and phrases consistent with the particular voice and tone required for a variety of
informal and formal situations (e.g., for a dramatization of a scene depicting the central conflict in a
novel; for a debate on the motivation of a character in a drama);
LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;
LG2.01D - communicate orally in group discussions for different purposes, with a focus on identifying
explicit and implicit ideas and comparing and contrasting key concepts and supporting details
LG2.03D - apply techniques of effective listening and demonstrate an understanding of oral presentations
by summarizing presenters’ arguments and explaining how vocabulary, body language, tone, and visual
aids enhance presentations (e.g., make and confirm or revise predictions; identify the purposes and
perspective of a presentation; analyse the ideas and arguments presented; discuss the use of visual aids in
a presentation);
LG2.04D - plan and make oral presentations independently, adapting vocabulary and using methods of
delivery to suit audience, purpose, and topic (e.g., identify purpose and audience; gather ideas and
information; plan, create, rehearse, and revise presentations such as dramatizations, panel discussions,
and debates; assess their work independently and with help from peers);
LG2.08D - analyse their own and others’ oral presentations, identifying strengths and weaknesses and
developing and carrying out plans for improvement.

Subtask Planning Notes

Teachers may wish to videotape student debates to facilitate student preparation of individual essays,
allow for student self-assessment, and allow for teacher assessment at a later time.

The teacher may wish to assign specific topics, or limit topic choices, depending upon resources
available in the school library. As well, the resource teacher should be informed of student research
in advance so resources will be readily available.

The teacher may wish to modify debate procedures, use other debate formats (Parliamentary, World
style, cross examination) and/or choose to form larger or smaller groups.

The teacher may wish to invite senior students and/or other teachers to act as judges for the debates.

Unit 2 - Page 25 English - Academic

If possible, the teacher should show students a videotape of a formal debate. The teacher could use
the videotaped debate to point out different debating styles, use of persuasive language, and use of
formal language. The teacher may wish to have students record the arguments presented and the
evidence used to support the arguments in order to have students decide which debater is more
persuasive and why.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Brainstorming

Collaborative/Co-operative Learning

Debating

Note-Making

Research

Students working individually

Students working in small groups
1. The teacher instructs students to assemble into groups of six.
2. The teacher refers student groups to their Issues Webs class note (See BLM 2.2-2). Student groups
review the list of controversial topics and decide upon one issue that they wish to explore further.
The teacher may wish to avoid topics of abortion or capital punishment as these topics are
emotionally explosive.
3. In a full class discussion, the teacher reviews persuasive language, bias, rhetorical devices, and oral
presentation skills. As well, the teacher reminds students that issues are multifaceted (See BLM 2.2-2
– Issues Web) and that, depending upon the perspective taken, the approach and the opinion about
the issue will vary. The teacher instructs student groups to examine all possible perspectives when
completing their research.
4. The teacher presents BLM 2.7-1 – Components of a Formal Debate and discusses it thoroughly to
ensure students’ understanding.
5. The teacher assigns BLM 2.7-2 – Preparing for a Formal Debate.
6. The teacher allots class time for students’ research (See Notes to Teacher) utilizing teacher librarian
and school Internet facilities for this purpose.
7. Once students’ research is completed, the teacher reminds students to refer to their note on the
structure and format of the debate (See BLM 2.7-1) and allows student groups one period to organize
their information and practice their persuasive speaking techniques. During this period the teacher
provides access to computer labs. The teacher has the students note that, due to the group sizes, each
group will have two recorders who will introduce and summarize the arguments. (See BLM 2.7-1).
The teacher distributes a Debate Group Checklist (See BLM 2.7-3) to each group and instructs
students to check their group progress.
8. Student groups present their debates. The debaters will be assessed summatively by the teacher using
BLM 2.7-4 – Debater’s Role – Debate Assessment Rubric. The recorders will be assessed using
BLM 2.7-6 – Recorder's Role – Debate Assessment Rubric. The arguments will be assessed by peers
or specified judges using BLM 2.7-5 – Persuasive Debate - Peer Evaluation. The teacher allows a
reprieve between debates for students’ questions, clarification, evaluation, and judgement.

Unit 2 - Page 26 English - Academic

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Essay

Classroom Presentation

Rubric

Checklist

Rating Scale

Summative

Students’ debates will be assessed by the teacher using a rubric and by peers using a rating scale.

Adaptations

Remediation: The teacher provides a simple topic and a list of specific resources.

Enrichment: The teacher creates groups of three (one affirmative debater, one negative debater, and
one moderator).

The teacher provides alternate opportunities for students whose cultural backgrounds may inhibit
their participation in a debate format.

Resources

BLM 2.7-1 – Components of a Formal Debate
A class note on debate terminology, rules, and layout.
BLM 2.7-2 – Preparing for a Formal Debate
A class note on the steps needed for planning a formal debate
BLM 2.7-3 – Debate Group Checklist
A checklist for groups to use when preparing their arguments.
BLM 2.7-4 – Debater’s Role – Debate Assessment Rubric
A rubric to assess the debater
BLM 2.7-5 – Persuasive Debate – Peer Evaluation
A point system to assist judges and peers in keeping track of arguments and deciding the winning team.
BLM 2.7-6 – Recorder’s Role – Debate Assessment Rubric
A rubric designed to assess the role of the group recorder.

Unit 2 - Page 27 English - Academic

BLM 2.1-1

Sample Persuasive Essay T-Chart

PART A: T-Chart

Thesis (claim):
Homework should (or should not) be assigned to students on a daily basis.
PROS CONS

1. It provides a review for the day’s lessons. 1. If all teachers assign homework on a daily
basis the students will have a heavy
workload.
2. It develops proper work habits. 2. It cuts down on the time when students
could be employed.
3. It encourages self-discipline. 3. It adds to students’ stress levels.
4. It keeps students busy so they do not get
into trouble.
4. It could lead to poor sleep habits.
5. It saves time in class for classroom
activities.
5. It cuts down on the students’ leisure time
with family and friends.
6. It provides an opportunity for independent
learning.
6. Completion of homework can be too
difficult without teacher assistance.
7. 7.
8. 8.

PART B: Organizer

CRITERIA - PROS CRITERIA - CONS

1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.

Unit 2 - Page 28 English - Academic

BLM 2.1-2

Persuasive Argument

Working in groups of three, choose a topic from the following list:

A. School uniforms should / should not be mandatory.
B. Food and drinks should / should not be allowed in classrooms.
C. Students should / should not be allowed to wear hats in school.
D. School property should / should not be a smoke free zone.
E.

Steps to follow:

1. Discuss the topic with your group members.
2. On chart paper, make a T-chart that lists the pros (should) and cons (should not) of your chosen
topic. Follow the sample discussed in class.
3. Organize your ideas and develop criteria from your T-chart. List your criteria in order of validity and
strength.
4. Choose group members to present the pro side and the con side to the class. Have the third group
member comment on the argument and decide which side (pro or con) is stronger. The group
member must indicate why the argument chosen is the better one.

Unit 2 - Page 29 English - Academic

BLM 2.2-0

Short Story Study Questions

"And The Lucky Winner Is ..."

By Monica Hughes

Word Study

Find a definition for each of the following words used in the story:
telekinesis furrow obscuring pallidly
garish caduceus regeneration neurological
wryly feinting permeable honing

Literature Study

1. At the beginning of the story the narrator says that Jon’s gift “was a burden he would happily cast
off...To be free”. Identify three ways that Jon’s gift can be seen as a burden. What type of freedom
would he gain if he lost the “gift”?
2. What things does Peri say to persuade Jon to use his telekinetic powers to help Nev? How does this
affect Jon’s ability to deal with his internal conflict?
3. Make a chart that lists at least three pros and three cons to the decision facing Jon.
4. An oxymoron is a literary device that combines two apparently opposite ideas together, such as fiery
ice. Identify one oxymoron used in the story and explain the effect it has on the reader. As well,
identify the best example of each of the following: simile, metaphor, onomatopoeia, personification.
How does each add to your enjoyment of the story?

“Lather and Nothing Else”

By: Hernando Tellez

Word Study

Find a definition for each of the following words used in the story.
foray revolutionary rejuvenated regime conscientious

Literature study

1. What is the cause of the barber’s nervousness in relation to his special customer?
2. What inner conflict in the barber is revealed by this encounter?
3. Identify at least three reasons that the barber gives for not killing the Captain.
Do you agree with the barber’s decision? Why or why not?
4. Find an example of an oxymoron, a metaphor, and onomatopoeia from the story and explain the
purpose of each in the story.

Journal Response

Jon from “And the Lucky Winner Is” and the barber from “Lather and Nothing Else” are faced with
situations which require them to examine their morals and values. In your learning log/journal examine a
time when you have had to make a moral decision. What were the pros and cons of the possible choices?
What questions did you have to ask yourself before you made the decision? Do you think that you made
the right decision? Why?

Unit 2 - Page 30 English - Academic

BLM 2.2-1

Types of Issues

HISTORICAL:

The analysis of an issue’s development over a period of time or an issue relevant during a specific time
period. Examples: First Nations’ rights, a woman’s right to vote, Confederation, etc.

SOCIAL:

Issues concerned with mutual relations of human beings or of classes of human beings; of, or relating to,
society and its organization. Examples: homelessness, teen pregnancy, poverty, etc.

POLITICAL:

Issues concerning the governing of a society at a municipal, provincial, or federal level. Examples: gun
laws, Separatism, the Young Offender’s Act, etc.

GLOBAL:

Issues concerning the international arena and its functioning. Examples: nuclear warfare, United Nations
peacekeeping, the regulation of international waters, etc.

LOCAL:

Issues decided at a municipal or community level (cities, towns, villages, etc.). Examples: waste disposal,
parking, zoning bylaws, etc.

ENVIRONMENTAL:

Issues pertaining to our environmental surroundings and their use (animals, water, forests, air, etc.).
Examples: clearcutting, pollution, greenhouse effect, etc.

SCIENTIFIC:

Issues that have a basis in scientific investigation and discovery. Examples: cloning, animal testing,
genetic engineering, etc.

ECONOMIC:

Issues affected by, or affecting, the monetary system of a society. Examples: taxation, national debt,
foreign aid, etc.

Unit 2 - Page 31 English - Academic

BLM 2.2-2

The Issues Web

Unit 2 - Page 32 English - Academic

BLM 2.2-3

Teacher Resource: Suggested Issues

HISTORICAL:

First Nations’ issues, gender equality, free trade, proactive selection or hiring policies, civil wars,
reformation, slave trade, intellectual repression, etc.

SOCIAL:

same sex benefits, homelessness, child abuse, teen pregnancy, drug/alcohol abuse, sexual assault,
prostitution, violence in the media, age of majority, violence in sports, legalization of marijuana,
prejudice, breastfeeding in public, poverty, illiteracy, daycare, paternity leave, abuse of the aged,
condition of the family unit, etc.

POLITICAL:

UN intervention in civil action, welfare/workfair, free trade, gun laws, Separatism, political ideologies
(ex. Canadian versus American health care systems), censorship, the seal hunt, nuclear weaponry, the
Young Offender’s Act, freedom of speech, unions, prison reform, etc.

GLOBAL:

International waters, children’s rights, famine, international Olympic Committee, abuse of human rights,
refugee status, war crimes, political asylum, genocide, aging population, world population explosion, etc.

LOCAL:

fishing rights, waste disposal, gang fights, smoking in restaurants, the bear hunt, parking issues, school
uniforms, zoning bylaws, bookbags in stores, halfway houses, skateboarding, amalgamation of
townships, historical site protection, community development, recreation facilities, in-line skating, etc.

ENVIRONMENTAL:

hazardous waste clean up, exportation of natural resources, logging and clearcutting, animal rights,
ecoterrorism, pollution control, recycling, oil spills, space junk, desertification, depletion of fresh water,
littering, greenhouse effect, depletion of the rainforest, transplanting of species, energy
crisis/conservation, urbanization, etc.

SCIENTIFIC:

genetic engineering, cloning, organ transplants, abortion, euthanasia, fertility drugs, nature vs. nurture,
performance enhancement drugs in sports, use of fetal tissue, animal testing, biological warfare, overuse
of antibiotics, etc..

ECONOMIC:

standard of living, Gross National Product, World Bank control of currency, business monopolies,
regional differences in cost of living, Old Age Pensions, etc.

Unit 2 - Page 33 English - Academic

BLM 2.2-4

Value Systems

What are values and morals?

Values are an individual’s judgement of what is important in life.
Morals are one’s beliefs about what is
good or bad, right or wrong. One’s moral beliefs influence one’s values.

Personal Value Systems

One’s system of values is determined by one’s heritage in the following areas:

family culture geography
religion language nationality
race politics community
society history

It is also influenced by one’s
gender, age, education, and economic backgrounds. Since these factors of
determining value systems are different for each individual, each individual’s value system remains very
personal and unique.

Changing Values

Morals and value systems change throughout one’s life and throughout human history depending upon
the circumstances and situations one encounters in one's environment.

Examples of change:

1. In the twenty-first century North Americans value the space program, whereas in the sixteenth
century, Copernicus was persecuted for his theories of astronomy.
2. In Canada one hundred years ago, it was considered morally unacceptable for women to wear
trousers, but today, for the majority, this is no longer a moral issue.

Different Values

Because value systems are so personal, the expression of beliefs often results in conflict. To avoid
conflict and encourage the discussion of different ideas about topics it is necessary that we all respect
and listen to the beliefs of others. This willingness to accept beliefs based on values different from our
own as valid and permissible for other individuals is called
tolerance.

Unit 2 - Page 34 English - Academic

BLM 2.3-1

Point/Counterpoint: Protocol

All team members must participate equally.

All team members must try to take on the role of point maker and paraphraser.

The team must specify speakers before each round begins.

Judges’ decisions are final and not arguable.

Only the designated speakers may speak during the round.

No interruptions or talking during the rounds.

No personal attacks.

Speakers must limit points to one argument only.

Insightful or well-expressed arguments may be rewarded based on the discretion of the teacher and/or
judges.

Speakers must follow designated time limits:
Points - 1 minute
Refute - 30 seconds
Summary - 30 seconds
Paraphrase - 30 seconds

Unit 2 - Page 35 English - Academic

BLM 2.3-2

Point/Counterpoint Rounds and Topics

Round One - 3 speakers per team

Topic: Which are better, cats or dogs?
Team A Team B Judge A

1. Point 2. Point Summarizes arguments
3. Point 4. Point Judge B

5. Point 6. Point Chooses winner/justifies

Round Two - 3 speakers per team

Topic: Which are better, sitcoms or one hour dramas on TV?
Team A Team B Judge A

2. Point 1. Point Summarizes arguments
4. Point 3. Point Judge B

6. Point 5. Point Chooses winner/justifies

Round Three - 4 speakers per team

Topic: Youths should/should not be allowed to bring knapsacks into stores.
Team A Team B Judge A

1. Point 2. Paraphrase/ New Point Judge B

3.Paraphrase/ New Point 4. Paraphrase/ New Point Choose winner/justify
5. Paraphrase/ New Point 6. Paraphrase/ New Point
7. Summary/Conclusion 8. Summary/Conclusion

Round Four - 7 speakers per team

Topic: In-line skates/skateboards should/should not be banned from public facilities.
Team A Team B Judge A

2. Paraphrase 1. Point Judge B

3. Point 4. Paraphrase Chooses winner/justify
6. Paraphrase 5. Point
7. Point 8. Paraphrase
10. Paraphrase 9. Point
11. Point 12. Paraphrase
14. Summary/Conclusion 13. Summary/Conclusion

Unit 2 - Page 36 English - Academic

BLM 2.3-2 (Continued)

Round Five - 8 speakers per team

Topic: Fighting should/should not be allowed in hockey.
Team A Team B Judge A

1. Introduction 2. Introduction Judge B

3. Point 4. Paraphrase Chooses winner/justify
6. Paraphrase 5. Point Indicate strongest point made
7. Point 8. Paraphrase
10. Paraphrase 9. Point
11. Point 12. Paraphrase
14. Paraphrase 13. Point
15. Summary/Conclusion 16. Summary/Conclusion

Round Six - 8 speakers per team

Topic: There should/should not be stricter punishments for littering.
Team A Team B Judge A

2. Introduction 1. Introduction Judge B

4. Refute 3. Point Chooses winner/justify
5. Point 6. Refute Indicate strongest point made
8. Refute 7. Point Indicate strongest refute made
9. Point 10. Refute
12. Refute 11. Point
13. Point 14. Refute
16. Summary/Conclusion 15. Summary/Conclusion

Round Seven - 8 speakers per team

Topic: CDs should/should not have explicit lyric label warnings.
Team A Team B Judge A

1. Introduction 2. Introduction Judge B

3. Point 4. Refute Chooses winner/justify
6. Refute 5. Point Indicate strongest point made
7. Point 8. Refute Indicate strongest refute made
10. Refute 9. Point Summarize arguments
11. Point 12. Refute
14. Refute 13. Point
15. Summary/Conclusion 16. Summary/Conclusion

Unit 2 - Page 37 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-0

Is There Life After Welfare?

by Annie Downey

Literature Study

Word Study

Find definitions for the following words based on how they are used in the article:
welfare burden unmitigated caseworker housing grants

Comprehension Questions

1. The author begins with a description of herself.
(a) Identify three words she uses to describe herself in paragraph one.
(b) Why does she start with these words?
(c) What tone is established in paragraph one?
2. Hyperbole is a deliberate exaggeration for effect. What effect is achieved by the author when she
states, “For five years I’ve exited unnoticed”?
3. Metaphors are used in speech to link one idea to another using words or ideas with which the reader
can identify. What link is being made by the author when she uses the metaphor in the line, “I grasp
the cord”?
4. What is ironic about the author’s life on welfare and the view she has (and believes others have) of
people who are on welfare?
5. The last three paragraphs are descriptions of the author. What statement is the author making about
herself by using the order she has (statistics then character) in her self-description?
6. What is the thesis of the article? Explain how you know using support from the article.

Journal Response

In your learning log/journal write a response in which you comment on the welfare system based on the
article “Is There Life After Welfare”. Base your response on your own observations or personal
experiences as well as the article.

Unit 2 - Page 38 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-1

Rhetorical Devices

Biased Language

Bias is the predisposition of a writer toward the particular subject about which he/she is writing. Often
this bias is established through the specific words that the writer uses. The dictionary definition, or literal
meaning, of a word is called its
denotation. In addition to this, many words have implied meanings. Each
of these implied meanings is the
connotation of the word.
For example, all of the following words have very similar
denotations but their connotations are very
different.
perfume scent odour stench
The first two words have
positive connotations while the last two have negative connotations.

Hyperbole

An hyperbole is an overstatement or exaggeration which helps to emphasize a point.
Examples: I have a million things to do today.
You are always talking.

Understatement

An understatement makes light of a point by representing it as being less than it is.
Examples: Jalapeño peppers may make your mouth tingle a bit.
The roads were a little slippery after the giant ice storm.

Rhetorical Question

A rhetorical question is asked merely for effect with either no answer expected or an obvious answer
implied.
Example: Are you enjoying learning about rhetorical language?

Repetition

The repeating of words or phrases for emphasis.
Examples: English class is very, very, very fun.
Rhetorical devices are so neat. Rhetorical devices are so cool.
Rhetorical devices are so neat. Look what can be learned at school!

Irony

Irony is the use of a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal meaning.
Example: After a boring party one might say, “It was a terrific night!”

Allusion

An allusion is a direct or indirect reference to a well-known person, place, thing or event that the writer
assumes the reader is familiar with.
Example: When I was younger, I always wanted a rubber duckie like Ernie’s.

Unit 2 - Page 39 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-2

Rhetorical Devices Crossword

1 2
3
4 5 6 7
8 9 10
11
12
13
14
15 16
17
18

ACROSS DOWN

1. Hyperbole - The teacher was 2
words).
2. Hyperbole - You are

(2 words) at yourself in the
mirror.
3. City Allusion - The school hallways were as busy as
Times Square at rush hour.
4. A word for intelligent that has a positive connotation.
6. A word for thrifty that has a negative connotation. 5. Historical Allusion - The rats were as large as those
that infested the trenches.
8. A word for dog that has a negative connotation. 7. Understatement - This year’s Stanley Cup champions
are players.
11. Mythological Allusion - Her face was as beautiful as the
one that launched a thousand ships (3 words).
9. Movie Allusion - Click your heels three times and say
“there’s no place like home” (4 words).
14. Hyperbole - I have been writing for my _
(2 words).
10. Understatement - When I had food poisoning, I was
feeling the _ (2 words).
15. A word for big that has a positive connotation. 12. A word for thin that has a positive connotation.
16. A word for old woman that has a negative connotation. 13. A word for fragile that has a positive connotation.
17. A word for different that has a negative connotation.
18. Hyperbole - The boring speech went on
_.

Unit 2 - Page 40 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-2 (Continued)

Rhetorical Devices Crossword Answer Key

A L W A Y S S M I L I N G
L
N E W Y O R K C I T Y
A
Y G W C H E A P
M U T T S U I O D
H E L E N O F T R O Y E
S E O D T L Q
L W O E E D D U
E I K R D W E A
N Z I W A L T
D A N E N T I R E L I F E
E R G A O C
G R A N D T N H A G
O D D H E T
F E E
O F O R E V E R
Z

Unit 2 - Page 41 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-3

Supporting an Opinion

What are Sources?

There are a number of different types and formats of sources that can be used to research a topic and
support an opinion.

Types of sources: Formats of sources: Places to go:

Print Bibliographies Libraries (school, public, personal)
Non-print Encyclopedias Art galleries
Human Record books Museums
Almanacs Historical houses

People to contact: Anthologies Historical societies
Teachers Atlases Churches/Synagogues
Researchers Textbooks /Mosques, etc.
Senior citizens Biographies Universities
Professionals in the field Television programs Businesses
Government officials Video tapes Manufacturing companies
Audio tapes/CDs Social agencies
Periodicals Community Organizations
Boards’ Student Information/
Data Management Systems
Databases
Magazines
Photographs
Art prints
Newspapers
The Internet
CD-ROMs
And of course. . . BOOKS!

Credibility of Sources

The selection of sources must be very specific to ensure the credibility of one’s support. The credibility
of a source is determined by the author’s position, qualifications and relationship to the topic.
For example: Would you trust what a tobacco company representative says about the health
risks associated with smoking? Probably not, because the tobacco company has
something to gain by minimizing the health risks of smoking.
If the source is not credible, one’s argument will not be persuasive to the audience.

Unit 2 - Page 42 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-3 (Continued)

Evaluating Credibility

The credibility of a source should be evaluated according to the following criteria:
1. Currency How old is the source? Is the information up to date?
2. Expertise Does the author have the credentials, position, or background that enables him/her to
discuss the topic with some authority?
3. Reliability Is the source reliable and likely to print accurate information?
Is there a specific target audience or is it intended for the general public?
4. Objectivity Is there any reason to question the author’s motive in supporting his/her opinion? Does
the author use biased language and/or stereotypes?
5. Balance Is there a balance in the variety of different types of supports used?
Does the author’s support appear balanced? Are there both facts and opinions offered as support?

Types and Uses of Supports

facts - true statements that cannot be refuted
Example: The Earth is the third planet from the sun.
Facts are useful in supporting an argument because they offer specific evidence
on a topic that cannot be argued. However, too many facts make an essay boring
and impersonal. An audience will not be convinced if they do not read the essay.

statistics - percentages and numbers generated through the compiling of data
Example: One out of every four Canadian homes has a personal computer.
Statistics lend support to arguments but they are not proof on their own because
statistics can be interpreted in many different ways. Statistics are good for
catching a reader’s attention but too many of them can make an essay boring and
dry.

quotations - direct words spoken by an expert or a person who can offer
insight into a topic
Example: “You must be organized when you are writing essays,” says
English teacher, Janice Rideout.
Quotations should be used sparingly and only when something cannot be
rephrased or is vital to supporting a point. Quotations from experts can offer
validity and authenticity to an argument but the use of too many quotations
suggests that the writer has nothing valid to say of his/her own.

expert
testimony - statements and information given by an expert on the topic
Example: Forensic experts are often used to explain evidence in
criminal trials.
Expert testimony is used to clarify and support a technical or difficult to
understand point. Expert testimony should only provide support based solely on
the expertise of the individual. Personal values should not affect his or her
testimony.

Unit 2 - Page 43 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-3 (Continued)

examples - specific instances or evidence
Example: The terms you have been reading are examples of types
of supports!
Examples do not prove a point but they suggest reasons why a point is valid.
Examples provide real life applications of the ideas in an essay and therefore can
be powerful tools in persuading an audience. Examples must be chosen carefully
to ensure that they do not bog the essay down and lead the reader off track.

comparisons
/analogies - compares the similarities or differences between items, topics,
points, etc.
Example: Working on an essay is like preparing for the
Olympics; it takes a lot of time and a lot of hard work.
Comparisons can help clarify one’s position in an essay by comparing it to the
positions of others. Likewise, analogies can offer a focus for readers to ensure
that the points are understood. Both can be very persuasive but should be used
carefully because they can diminish the precise idea of the argument by
confusing the reader about the topic being discussed.

experience - personal interaction with the topic being discussed
Example: An essay about seatbelt laws that discusses a personal
experience involving an accident in which no seatbelt was worn.
Experience can be a powerful tool of persuasion because it provides a real-life
situation with which the reader can identify. Experience must be used carefully
because it often corrupts the credibility and tone of an essay. Experience often
leads to the writer discussing his/her reaction to the topic instead of the topic
itself.

ideas/opinions
/theories - based on value decisions, not proven facts
Example: Teenage pregnancy is a horrible thing.
The use of ideas/opinions/theories can be a powerful persuasive tool if the writer
is aware of the values of his intended audience because he can form an emotional
bond with the reader. Writers must ensure that the ideas, opinions, and theories
used are from relevant and credible sources. The use of ideas/opinions/theories
should be limited as it can also diminish the effectiveness of an essay by failing
to offer little concrete support.
The more types of support a writer uses, the more convincing an argument will be. An essay writer must
maintain a balance between factual and interpretive supports to ensure that the essay remains effective
and interesting. If an essay is boring it will not be read and therefore serves no purpose.

Unit 2 - Page 44 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-4

Identification of Types of Supports

For each of the following, indicate the type of support and whether it is based in fact or based in opinion.

Identify the
Type of Support
Support Factuallybased
Opinionbased

The crime rate can be seen by examining big cities such
as Ottawa.
Miners extract iron ore in much the same way as bees
extract honey.
The prime minister said that, “the national debt is a
priority” with his government.
Ninety percent of dentists recommend flossing daily.
Toronto is the largest city in Canada.
I have had the opportunity to travel across this
wonderful country.
Advising the patient about the possible side effects of the
medication is a doctor’s first concern.
The angle of a bullet exit wound is dependent upon the
angle of trajectory as the bullet left the gun.
More than forty percent of women over the age of sixty
have osteoporosis.
Canadians fought in both World War I and World War II.
After skidding into a parked car last winter, I became
aware of the necessity of having a good set of snow tires
during an Ontario winter.
Sir Sanford Fleming is an example of one of Canada’s
many great inventors.
Figures suggest that the majority of Canadians have a
television.
Hurdling is the most difficult event in track and field.
Americans are often envious of the houses in Canada, the
majority of which are built of clay brick.
Skin grafting is a complicated procedure that requires a
physician to remove skin from one area of the body and
fuse it to another area.
“A rose by any other name would still smell as sweet.”
The best season of the year is autumn.
Statistics Canada representative, John Smith, indicated
that “a great deal of Canada’s children are living below
the poverty line”.
There are 365 days a year in the modern calendar.

Unit 2 - Page 45 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-5

Evaluating Your Essay For Fairness and Logical Reasoning

Whenever one writes persuasively there is a risk of becoming too passionately involved to think logically
and as a result the support can turn into an emotional outburst rather than clearly organized arguments.
As well, some people choose to persuade using means that are not necessarily fair; rather, they rely on
words that actually trick a reader. When writing a persuasive essay always check for the following
common problems that can weaken your final product:

Generalizations

Do not rely on the audience to interpret your specific idea from a broad statement. Also, when
generalizations are used, the writer makes a conclusion from too little evidence. Specify what you mean
clearly in all of your arguments. For example: avoid generalizations like, “It’s time we all get together as
Canadians.” This relies on the reader’s interpretation of what being a Canadian is and for many that
concept varies.

Arguing
ad hominem

People can easily get sidetracked about emotional issues and in such cases tend to use arguments which
appeal to prejudice or emotion rather than reason. For example: when talking about the need for taxation
in local areas, the argument should not include a statement that politicians are only interested in taxation
so they can use the money for themselves instead of for the general population.

Faulty Cause and Effect

There must be a direct connection between a support that is clearly proven and not just assumed because
it sounds logical. For example: a study may show that there has been an increase in the cases of hospital
patients getting an infection while in the hospital. Another study may show that nurses and other
healthcare workers have been reported to not be thoroughly washing their hands while on the job. In the
case of faulty cause and effect persuasive writing, the writer would assume that the two studies are
connected and would link them without sufficient proof. There may be another reason for the increase in
infections for hospitalized patients so the support has to be clearly linked by fact, not assumption.

Faulty Analogies

To understand concepts clearly, people sometimes like to link ideas they are unfamiliar with to those they
readily understand, either by comparing two or more things or by linking two or more things with a few
similar characteristics. Effective persuasive writing relies on comparisons and references which are
logical and not too broad to be believable. For example: an essay about students and homework could
incorrectly include a comparison between overworked students and soldiers in an army.

Jumping on a Bandwagon

At times it is easy to be swayed by the masses. As a result, writers jump to a conclusion that makes sense
because it sounds right to the majority of people rather than ensuring that the supports used lead to a
logical conclusion.

Either/Or Situations

There are usually more than two sides to an argument. Writers sometimes argue that a view is either right
or wrong and do not allow for other possibilities.

Begging The Question

Effective persuasive essays do not make assertions that what their support states leads to other truths.
Effective persuasive essays rely on proof for each and every statement, not assumption about the
statements.

Unit 2 - Page 46 English - Academic

BLM 2.4-6

Credibility of Sources Checklist

Title: Author:
Copyright Information:
Check the appropriate box for each question. Total your
Yes responses and give the source a mark out of
10 for credibility.

Currency
Yes No

Is the copyright recent? ❏ ❏

Is the information up to date? ❏ ❏

Expertise

Is the author an expert? ❏ ❏

Does the author have the appropriate credentials? ❏ ❏

Reliability

Is the source trustworthy? ❏ ❏

Does the writing seem accurate and believable? ❏ ❏

Objectivity

Is the writing bias and stereotype free? ❏ ❏

Does the writing appear to be as objective as possible? ❏ ❏

Balance

Does the author’s support for the opinion appear balanced? ❏ ❏

Does the author use a variety of different types of supports? ❏ ❏

/10

BLM 2.5-1

Montreal Trees

Anne Cimon

Literature Study

Word Study

L’Enfer, c’est l’autre They are hell, those others

souche-Français French trunk

Comprehension Questions

1. How does Cimon view Montreal a) in the past; and b) in the present?
2. How does the poet use the image of trees to convey her view of change and language in Montreal?
Be specific.
3. What issues are raised in the poem and what value systems influence these issues?
4. Identify and explain two allusions made in the poem.
5. What is the tone of the poem? How does it influence the message?

Journal Response

Based on what the authors of “Montreal Trees” and “Does Anybody Hear” say about the destruction of
natural environments through urbanization and industry, discuss what you see are the pros and cons of
technology and its impact on the natural world.

Unit 2 - Page 47 English - Academic

BLM 2.5-2

Words for Humanity

Imagine that you are either a famous poet or a songwriter. You feel passionately about a current
environmental or social issue and wish to captivate and motivate your audience to take action to help
solve the problem. To do so you have chosen to use the format you have been made famous for to write a
persuasive piece.

Steps

1. Examine your Issues Web and choose an environmental or social issue that concerns you.
2. Determine your target audience(s) and brainstorm effective methods of reaching this audience using
your chosen format. You will need to identify your chosen audience on the title page of your finished
product.
3. Research the issue. Be sure to find credible sources which can be easily understood by your
audience. Include a minimum of three sources, using two different types. You will submit your
research notes with the finished product so be sure that they are well organized and that all pertinent
information is clearly stated.
4. Use the writing process (BORDER), your knowledge of rhetorical devices, persuasive language and
the information gathered in your research to write either a poem or song lyrics. Your poem or song
lyrics must include language that captures your audience’s attention, informs them of the issue and
motivates them to take action.
5. Your poem/song lyrics must be a minimum of 20 lines. The poem/song lyrics must employ a definite
rhythm and structure. The poem must include poetic devices (alliteration, metaphor, simile, imagery,
etc.) and an appropriate and effective tone.
6. Provide a Works Cited that lists (in proper format) the sources you have employed.

Submit (in this order)

1. Title page
2. Good copy of your poem/song lyrics
3. Works Cited list
4. Edited copy of your poem/song lyrics
5. Outline
6. Brainstorming
7. Research notes

Unit 2 - Page 48 English - Academic

BLM 2.5-3

Rating Scale For a Persuasive Poem

Content /10

(a specific issue is addressed fully, the stand on the issue is clearly represented, the stand is supported
with your researched material, a suggested course of action is apparent, the content is appropriate for the
intended audiences, etc.)

Style /8

(words have been carefully selected for meaning and effectiveness, rhetorical and poetic devices are
used, tone is persuasive, the writing is emotionally appealing, etc.)

Organization /4

(logical progression of ideas, definite rhythm is employed, a definite structure is apparent, ideas are
coherent and clearly presented, etc.)

Mechanics /3

(the writing adheres to the rules of standard use of Canadian English)

TOTAL /25

BLM 2.5-4

Rating Scale for Works Cited Format

Indented /1

(all entries show proper indentation as needed)

Correct order /2

(all information is presented in the proper sequence)

Alphabetized /1

(all entries are listed in alphabetical order)

Punctuation /3

(all punctuation is utilized correctly; no punctuation is missing)

Complete /2

(all required sections are included for sources cited)

Sources /1

(all sources used have been listed)

TOTAL /10

Unit 2 - Page 49 English - Academic

BLM 2.5-5

Credibility of Sources - Teacher Checklist

Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor
(4) (3) (2) (1)
Currency

- the sources are up to date

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

Expertise

- the authors have the appropriate credentials

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

Reliability

- the sources are trustworthy

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

Objectivity

- the sources are as objective as possible

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

Balanced

- the authors’ supports appear balanced

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

TOTAL /20
divided by 2 = /10

Unit 2 - Page 50 English - Academic

BLM 2.6-1

What Makes a Good Persuasive Essay?

Priorities
1. A choice of topic that is valuable for debate: The issue must be one that is arguable on many levels
and is not just an emotional issue. (For example, the statement, “Broccoli is better than cauliflower”
is not a valid persuasive topic. It is too broad a topic and could refer to many different areas of debate
about the two foods. A stronger, more valid persuasive topic about broccoli and cauliflower would be
a stand that can be supported with fact. “Broccoli, based on its nutritious value, is a better choice of
food than cauliflower.” Support can be used in the second statement to prove the stand is correct.)

2. A clear, concise standpoint on the topic at hand. To effectively argue for your point, your point
must be stated so that there is no misinterpretation of what you intend to defend. The language of
your thesis statement (your opinion/what you will argue) should be strong, confident, and contain no
wording or phrases that could suggest a swaying of your views from one side to the other.

3. Evidence that is clear, valid, logical, and pertinent to the topic at hand. All the strength of your
persuasion is a direct result of the evidence you use to support your stand and the wording you use to
present your stand. Evidence is found from a variety of sources such as: statistics, facts, examples,
expert opinions, reasons, etc.

Once you have gathered the three necessary components for a persuasive essay as listed above you
need to follow a winning format for presenting them. The breakdown for persuasive essay writing
structure is as follows:

1. The opening paragraph(s):

gains the reader’s attention to the issue you will argue

provides some background to the issue

may include a brief background of why you hold a specific belief and why the issue is important
to you

includes the thesis statement, stating your assertion or position clearly

includes an overview of the arguments you will use to prove your stand is a valid and logical one
2. The body of the persuasive essay:

has a dual purpose a) to present your own arguments
AND b) to acknowledge opposing viewpoints but to overpower their strength
with your refutation

provides strong arguments for your thesis statement

utilizes facts, statistics, expert opinions, examples, etc. to strengthen your arguments

uses rhetorical language, persuasive phrasing, and mature tone to strengthen and unify your
arguments

organizes the arguments in terms of their strength. Start with one of your strongest arguments and
follow with one that has the least force. The oppositions’ views enter at this point and are refuted
in an attempt to help the opposition see the logic of your side. Close the body of the persuasive
essay by stating the final argument you have. This should also be one of the strongest arguments
you have saved from the list of support you compiled in defense of your thesis. An alternate
closure to the body of the persuasive essay may include proposing a reasonable solution for the
issue you have been arguing about.
3. The conclusion of a persuasive essay:

brings the essay to a logical conclusion

reaffirms the writer’s position

ends in a way that prompts the reader to change his/her thinking or take a certain course of action

Unit 2 - Page 51 English - Academic

BLM 2.6-2

Persuasive Essay Writing and the Great Canadian Game of Hockey

A persuasive essay is written to convince an audience to think in a certain way or to take a particular
action. This is done through the use of persuasive language and logical, well-supported arguments. A
persuasive essay requires you to:
(a) form an opinion (a personal feeling or belief) about an important subject; and
(b) provide support or prove your opinion.
How the Steps for Writing a Persuasive Essay are liking Picking a Winning Team in Hockey:

Writing a Persuasive Essay Picking a Winning Team

1. Study and research both sides of a
controversial issue.
1.
Study and research the playing records of
both teams.
2. Make a list of pros and cons for the issue. 2. Make a list of the strengths and weaknesses
of each team.
3. Pick a side and develop your thesis
statement.
3. Based on your list decide and state clearly
which team you think would win.
4. Make a case for the defense of your thesis –
develop criteria and valid support.
4. Be able to explain your choice for a winning
team based on facts, statistics, players’
records/histories, etc.
5. Consider opposing viewpoints and examine
them for their strengths and prepare to refute
them. You demonstrate recognition that
others have strong views but you must show,
through logical reasoning, that your views
are more valid.
5. Think of reasons why others would choose a
different team. Consider their arguments and
refute them. E.g., a player may be strong but
he does not work well as part of a team.
6. Organize your arguments into an outline. 6. Think of a logical order in which you would
present your side to others about your
choice of a team.
7. Review your arguments carefully for
fairness and effectiveness. Have you chosen
arguments which are the strongest support
for your view and which rely on truths, not
opinions?
7. Review your reasons for your choice of a
team and be sure that you have evaluated all
the facts, statistics, histories, etc. to ensure
you have made the right choice.
8. Use rhetoric in your persuasive language.
This is a style of writing which relies on
words and phrases that help to strengthen
your view and your support. Rhetoric is the
winning link you can use to tie all of your
researched support together so that in a
written essay, readers are left with no choice
other than to comply with your logical and
mature point of view.
8. Present your choice of a winning team in a
style that is not confrontational but rather is
calm, logical and shows an understanding of
the opposition. Your support and arguments
for your choice is already prepared and, if
you have followed the steps outlined, those
arguments and supports are enough to
convince anyone that you are correct.

Unit 2 - Page 52 English - Academic

BLM 2.6-3

Persuasive Essay Outline Framework

Use this outline framework as an organizational guide when writing persuasive essays.

Introduction: background of topic (e.g., The United Nations...)

Thesis: your standpoint concerning the issue this outline is about

Criterion 1: the initial point supporting your stance
(This initial point should be of medium intensity. Make the audience think...)

support (a)
(b)
(c)

Criterion 2: the second point supporting your stance
(This point should be your weakest argument; valid, but not your best.)

support (a)
(b)
(c)

Criterion 3: one argument opposing your stance on the issue
(At this point your arguments will refute using rhetoric and persuasive language.)

support (a) support from your stance which refutes the opposition’s point
(b) additional support from your stance to refute opposition
(c) final support from your stance used to refute opposition

Criterion 4: your third and final point supporting your stance on the issue
(Use your strongest point here; send your message to your reader loudly and clearly.)

support (a)
(b)
(c)

Conclusion:

Unit 2 - Page 53 English - Academic

BLM 2.6-4

Persuasive Essay Assessment Rubric

Achievement
Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%
Knowledge and
Understanding

The student:
- demonstrates
understanding of
relationships
among facts,
ideas, and
concepts (with
focus on
supporting the
central idea of the
essay).
- supports central
ideas with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant
- supports central
ideas with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant and
accurate
- supports central
ideas with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
credible and
sufficient
- supports central
ideas with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
sufficient,
credible and
compelling
- demonstrates
understanding of
relationships
among facts,
ideas, and
concepts (with
focus on
supporting the
central idea of the
essay by
presenting and
rebutting an
opposing opinion).
- rebuts an
opposing idea
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant
- rebuts an
opposing idea
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant and
accurate
- rebuts an
opposing idea
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
credible, and
sufficient
- rebuts an
opposing idea
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
sufficient,
credible, and
compelling

Thinking and
Inquiry

The student:
- demonstrates
critical thinking
and inquiry skills
(with a focus on
formulating a
valid and clearlystated
opinion in a
persuasive essay).
- thesis statement
is present yet
vague, simplistic,
or unclear
- thesis is present
yet conventional
and focusses the
essay somewhat
- thesis is
formulated and
demonstrates a
clear opinion.
- thesis is wellformulated,
insightful, and
demonstrates a
clear, precise, and
credible opinion.
It focusses the
essay forcefully

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 2 - Page 54 English - Academic

BLM 2.6-4 (Continued)

Achievement
Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%
Communication

The student:
- communicates
for different
audiences and
purposes.
- uses an informal
tone with limited
diction and style
- uses a formal
tone and diction
and style are
somewhat
consistent
- uses a formal
tone; diction and
style are
consistent and
appropriate
- effectively uses
a formal tone,
appropriate
diction,
terminology, and
style
- communicates
ideas persuasively.
- limited attention
given to
persuasive
language
- some persuasive
language and an
attempt to use
rhetorical devices
- persuasive
language and
rhetorical devices
used
- persuasive
language and
rhetorical devices
are creatively and
effectively used
- communicates
information and
ideas with a focus
on supporting the
central idea of the
essay.
- limited
organization of
ideas in the essay
as a series of
random points
- organizes ideas
in essay
somewhat
logically into
paragraphs, using
topic sentences
and persuasive
essay format
- organizes ideas
in essay clearly,
logically, and
coherently in
persuasive essay
format
- organizes ideas
in essay clearly,
logically,
coherently, and in
a unified manner
in a persuasive
essay format

Application

The student:
- applies writing
process.
- limited evidence
of preplanning
submitted;
appears rushed
- some steps of
process evident
- good use of all
steps of writing
process
- thorough use of
all steps of the
writing process;
revisions done
- applies correct
documentation.
- documents
sources providing
basic information
- documents
sources somewhat
accurately and
completely and
attempts to use a
standard
documentation
format
- documents
sources
completely with
some errors in
application of a
standard
documentation
format
- documents
sources
completely and
accurately in
standard
documentation
format
- applies language
conventions
(spelling,
grammar,
punctuation).
- several major
and minor errors
are evident and
occasionally
interfere with the
reader’s
understanding
- a few major and
minor errors are
evident and
occasionally
interfere with the
reader’s
understanding
- some minor
errors are evident
but do not
interfere with
reader’s
understanding
- few minor errors
are evident and
meaning is clear

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 2 - Page 55 English - Academic

BLM 2.6-5

Rating Scale for Works Cited Format

Indented /1

(all entries show proper indentation as needed)

Correct Order /2

(all information is presented in proper sequence)

Alphabetized /1

(all entries are listed in alphabetical order)

Punctuation /3

(all punctuation is utilized correctly; no punctuation is missing)

Complete /2

(all required sections are included for sources cited)

Sources /1

(all sources used have been listed)

TOTAL /10

Unit 2 - Page 56 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-1

Components of a Formal Debate

What are the reasons for a debate?

Debates allow a formal method for presenting both sides of a controversial issue before an audience.

Debates allow people the opportunity to discuss their opinions in a controlled and productive forum.

Who are the players?

Affirmative side: consists of one or more team members whose goal is to present arguments which
are for the issue.

Negative side: consists of one or more team members whose goal is to present arguments which are
against the issue.

Recorder: one person per team who maintains the organization of arguments, prepares rebuttals for
the debate speakers, and presents the opening and closing statements.

Debate Terminology:

affirmative - the side arguing in support of the issue.
negative - the side arguing against the issue.
question - every debate is based upon a question with two opposing viewpoints about an issue.
rebuttal - a response to a point raised which weakens the validity and strength of that point.
point of order - when a question is raised concerning the proper running of a debate. The point of
order is addressed to the moderator and is posed by any one of the team members.
moderator - a person whose task is to ensure that proper debate procedures occur. For example:
keeping track of time, ensuring people speak in turn.
judges - a select group of people whose job it is to listen to both sides of the debate, record
arguments/supports to determine the points gained, and tally points to determine the
overall winners of the debate.
a round - consists of one speech from each side.
opening - an introduction of the debate issue in which the initial criteria for both sides of the
statement debate are introduced in a way that is persuasive and appealing to the judge’s and
audience’s emotions.
closing - summation of arguments and the last opportunity to persuade the judges and the
statement audience members to believe your standpoint is the strongest on the issue debated.

Unit 2 - Page 57 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-1 (Continued)

Rules of a debate:

The affirmative side begins a debate.

During the debate only one person may speak at a time. This person must be acknowledged by the
judge(s) before s/he begins to speak.

If an individual speaks without the permission of the judge(s) his or her team will lose one point. If
the same individual speaks out of turn again, s/he will be disqualified from the remainder of the
debate.

Each speaker will be given a time limit during which they may present their argument or respond to
the opposing team’s previous argument. The speaker must stop immediately at the sound of the
buzzer. If a speaker continues to speak after the buzzer his or her team will lose one point. If s/he
continues speaking after the judge has reprimanded him or her, s/he will be disqualified for the
debate.

Each speaker must present one argument and respond to one argument presented by the opposing
team.

The team recorder may not present any arguments, nor respond to any arguments during the debate.
The team recorder’s role is to present the opening and closing statements. The recorder may
communicate with team members and the judge in writing only.

Each team must submit an order of speakers to the judge(s) before the debate begins. This order may
be changed during the debate by the team’s recorder but must be done so before the judge
acknowledges the team’s next speaker.

The judge(s) will award points according to the validity and effectiveness of the arguments and the
rebuttals to the arguments presented by each team.

The rulings of the judge(s) are final. Any argument will disqualify a team.

Anyone arriving late for the debate will not be admitted.

Layout of a debate (the procedure):

Opening Statements:
Opening statement: affirmative team (A) 2 minutes
Opening statement: negative team (N) 2 minutes
Rounds:
A - 1st argument (A-1) 2 minutes
N - 1st rebuttal to A-1 2 minutes
N - 1st argument (N-1) 2 minutes
A - 1st rebuttal to N-1 2 minutes
A - 2nd argument (A-2) 2 minutes
N - 2nd rebuttal to A-2 2 minutes
N - 2nd argument (N-2) 2 minutes
A - 2nd rebuttal to N-2 2 minutes
Closing Statements:
Closing statement: affirmative team (A) 2 minutes
Closing statement: negative team (N) 2 minutes
Decision:
Judge’s tally and ruling 3 minutes

Unit 2 - Page 58 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-2

Preparing for a Formal Debate

STEPS:

1. As a group, identify a debatable issue.
2. Determine a clear, strong question on this issue.
3. Once you have established a question, determine who will argue for the affirmative side and who will
argue for the negative side.
4. Modify the question so that it becomes a clear, concise statement presenting a positive statement
about your stand on the issue, whether affirmative or negative.
For example: 1. issue: teenager’s curfew
2. question: Should teenagers be given a curfew?
3. modified: Teenagers need curfews for their own protection.
5. Begin research to gather support for your position on the issue.

Suggested types of supports and resources:

Internet case studies E-library primary sources
statistics examples interviews CD-ROM facts library

NOTE: Keep track of all gathered materials, including bibliographic information as all of your
research material will be placed in a research folder, with an annotated bibliography
attached to the front. This will be submitted to the teacher on the day of your debate and
will be used by other members of the class as a research source.
6. Organize and evaluate the contents of all of the support you have gathered. Discard any material that
is irrelevant but save any material the opposition could use in order to help you plan your rebuttals.
7. Determine who will take the role of the first speaker, second speaker and recorder.
8. Choose two strong arguments that support your issue. Each speaker needs to choose one of the
arguments and prepare a speech to be presented during the formal debate. Once written, revise the
arguments for strength, logic, organization, and coherence. Place both arguments in order so that they
will have the greatest impact on the audience and judge(s). (Suggested order: the second strongest
argument is presented first and the strongest argument is saved until last. This ensures that you end
the debate on a powerful note.)
9. Practise the delivery of speeches. Focus during the practice on including not only the arguments and
rebuttals that have been prepared but also on the manner, style and language that will be used during
the presentation.
HINT: Use rhetorical devices, biased language, persuasive tones and the strong oral skills that
you have been learning about and practising throughout this unit.
10. The recorder needs to prepare a number of rebuttals based on the research gathered and based on the
expected arguments from the opposing team.
11. On the day of your debate come prepared. You will:
(a) submit your research folder, complete with an annotated bibliography attached to the cover;
(b) dress appropriately;
(c) arrive early so you can review and practise with your group and be ready to present;
(d) follow the rules outlined by the moderator of your debate;
(e) accept the ruling of the judges with dignity, decorum, and courtesy.

Unit 2 - Page 59 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-3

Debate Group Checklist

Planning and participating in a class debate requires research, organization and presentation skills. In
order to make your debate successful, check over the following list with your debating team and ensure
that you have a winning plan!

AREAS OF CONCERN YES NO
RESEARCH:

1. We have found a variety of sources on our topic. ❏ ❏

2. Our research has been thorough. ❏ ❏

3. Our sources are credible and valid. ❏ ❏

4. Sources found have offered a variety of types of supports. ❏ ❏

5. We have tried to get both primary and secondary research. ❏ ❏

6. Each of us has reviewed the sources and made notes toward organizing ideas. ❏ ❏

7. Research notes are organized into a research folder and clearly labelled and
identified.

❏ ❏

8. An annotated bibliography that will be helpful to anyone researching ❏ ❏

our topic is complete and in our research folder. ❏ ❏

ORGANIZATION:

1. Each team member is aware of his or her role in the debate. ❏ ❏

2. Strongest arguments are identified. These are organized so that they will have
the greatest possible impact on the audience.

❏ ❏

3. Support is organized into logical and concise arguments. ❏ ❏

4. Rebuttals to opposing arguments are prepared. ❏ ❏

5. Arguments are practised and timed. ❏ ❏

6. Information is organized and accessible so that an unexpected rebuttal can be
prepared during the debate.

❏ ❏

7. Each team member has prepared to anticipate and record the other side’s
arguments. Each team member is ready to look for an opportunity to turn the
opponents’ arguments against them.

❏ ❏

THE DEBATE:

1. All team members have reviewed the debate format. ❏ ❏

2. All team members have practised facial expressions and body language when
speaking formally.

❏ ❏

3. All team members have incorporated rhetorical devices and persuasive
language in their arguments.

❏ ❏

4. Team members have practised using emphasis, inflection, intonation and the
use of dramatic pauses.

❏ ❏

5. Team members have thought about how to use pace and volume effectively. ❏ ❏

6. Team members have planned an appropriate attire for the debate day. ❏ ❏

7. Your team has planned an interesting opening that clearly states your team’s
position.

❏ ❏

8. Your team has planned a summary of main points. ❏ ❏

Unit 2 - Page 60 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-4

Debater’s Role - Debate Assessment Rubric

Student Name: Date:

Achievement
Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60=69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%
Knowledge and
Understanding

The student:
- demonstrates
understanding of
relationships among
facts, ideas, and
concepts (with
focus on support for
an argument).
- supports
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or
expert opinions
that are
somewhat
relevant
- supports
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant and
accurate
- supports
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
credible, and
sufficient
- supports
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
sufficient,
credible, and
compelling
- demonstrates
understanding of
relationships among
facts, ideas, and
concepts (with
focus on supporting
the central idea of
the debate by
rebutting an
opposing argument).
- rebuts
opposing
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons or
expert opinions
that are
somewhat
relevant
- rebuts opposing
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant and
accurate
- rebuts an
opposing
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
credible, and
sufficient
- rebuts opposing
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
sufficient,
credible, and
compelling

Thinking and
Inquiry

The student:
- demonstrates
critical thinking and
inquiry skills (with
a focus on
formulating valid
and clearly-stated
arguments).
- formulates and
presents basic
arguments
- formulates and
presents
arguments
somewhat clearly
and logically
- formulates and
presents
thoughtful
arguments clearly
and logically
- formulates and
presents insightful
arguments clearly,
concisely,
logically, and
convincingly

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 2 - Page 61 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-4 (Continued)

Achievement
Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%
Communication

The student:
- communicates for
different audiences
and purposes with a
focus on language
and style.
- uses an
informal tone
and limited
diction and style
- uses a formal
tone and diction
and style are
somewhat
inconsistent
- uses a formal
tone; diction and
style are
consistent and
appropriate
- effectively uses
a formal tone,
appropriate
diction,
terminology, and
style
- communicates for
different audiences
and purposes with a
focus on rhetorical
devices.
- uses few
rhetorical
devices to
support
arguments
- uses some
rhetorical devices
appropriately to
support
arguments
- uses rhetorical
devices
appropriately to
support
arguments
- uses rhetorical
devices
effectively and
creatively to
support
arguments
- communicates
information and ideas
with a focus on
supporting the central
idea of the debate.
- attempts use of
structure or
appropriate
patterns to
organize
arguments
-uses structure
and patterns to
organize
arguments
- organizes
arguments clearly,
logically and
coherently
- organizes
arguments
logically,
coherently and
effectively

Application

The student:
- applies oral
communication
techniques with a
focus on verbal and
nonverbal speaking
techniques such as
tone, pace, body
language, facial
expression,
inflection, volume.
- uses few
verbal and
nonverbal
techniques.
- uses some
verbal and
nonverbal
techniques.
- uses verbal and
nonverbal
techniques
appropriately.
- uses verbal and
nonverbal
techniques to
create a special
effect or impact.

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 2 - Page 62 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-5

Persuasive Debate – Peer Evaluation

Award points for each team as follows:
Opening statement -
maximum 2 points
1 point if the position and arguments are clearly stated
1 point if the opening statement is intriguing
Arguments 1 and 2 -
maximum 4 points each
1 point for clearly stating an effective argument
½ point for each valid proof of argument (to a maximum of 2 points)
1 point for the use of effective tone, rhetorical devices and persuasive
language
Closing summation -
maximum of 2 points
1 point for clearly summarizing the position, arguments and proofs
1 point for a hard-hitting and persuasive concluding statement

Team 1 - Affirmative side Points
Awarded

Team 2 - Negative Side Points
Awarded

Opening Statement - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
Opening Statement - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
Argument 1- Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Rebuttal 1 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Rebuttal 1 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Argument 1 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Argument 2 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Rebuttal 2 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Rebuttal 2 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Argument 2 - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
3
4
Summation - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2
Summation - Speaker:
Comments:
1
2

Unit 2 - Page 63 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-6

Recorder’s Role - Debate Assessment Rubric

Student Name: Date:

Achievement
Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%
Knowledge and
Understanding

The student:
- demonstrates
understanding of
relationships
among facts,
ideas, and
concepts (with
focus on
introducing and
explaining
arguments).
- introduces and
explains argument
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant
- introduces and
explains argument
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
somewhat
relevant and
accurate
- supports
argument with
factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
credible, and
sufficient
- introduces and
explains argument
with factual
information,
statistics,
examples,
reasons, or expert
opinions that are
relevant, accurate,
sufficient,
credible, and
compelling

Thinking and
Inquiry

The student:
- demonstrates
inquiry skills
(with a focus on
planning,
assessing and
summarizing
information
relevant to an
issue.
- attempts to plan,
assess and
summarize
information
- plans, assesses
and summarizes
information
somewhat clearly
and logically
- plans, assesses
and summarizes
information
clearly and
logically
- plans, assesses
and summarizes
information
insightfully,
clearly, concisely,
logically, and
convincingly
- demonstrates
critical thinking
skills with a focus
on analysing
information during
the debate and
planning
unexpected
rebuttals.
- minimal ability
to analyse, plan
and rebut
information
- some analysing
and planning of
information with
an attempt at a
rebuttal
- information is
analysed, planned
and a clear
rebuttal is
presented
- information is
thoroughly
analysed and a
clear, concise and
well-organized
rebuttal is
presented

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 2 - Page 64 English - Academic

BLM 2.7-6 (Continued)

Achievement
Criteria
Level 1
50-59%
Level 2
60-69%
Level 3
70-79%
Level 4
80-100%
Communication

The student:
- communicates
for different
audiences and
purposes with a
focus on language
and style.
- uses an informal
tone and limited
diction and style
- uses a formal
tone and diction
and style are
somewhat
consistent
- uses a formal
tone; diction and
style are
consistent and
appropriate
- effectively uses
a formal tone,
appropriate
diction,
terminology, and
style
- communicates
for different
audiences and
purposes with a
focus on rhetorical
devices.
- uses few
rhetorical devices
to introduce and
summarize an
issue
- uses some
rhetorical devices
appropriately to
introduce and
summarize an
issue
- uses rhetorical
devices
appropriately to
introduce and
summarize an
issue
- uses rhetorical
devices
effectively and
creatively to
introduce and
summarize an
issue
- communicates
information and
ideas with a focus
on supporting the
central idea of the
debate.
- attempts use of
structure or
appropriate
patterns to
organize
information
- uses structure
and patterns to
organize
information
- organizes
information
clearly, logically
and coherently
- organizes
information
logically in a
manner that
produces the
greatest
persuasive effect

Application

The student:
- applies oral
communication
techniques with a
focus on verbal
and nonverbal
speaking
techniques such as
tone, pace, body
language, facial
expression,
inflection, volume,
etc.
- uses few verbal
and nonverbal
techniques
- uses some verbal
and nonverbal
techniques
- uses verbal and
nonverbal
techniques
appropriately
- uses verbal and
nonverbal
techniques to
create a special
effect or impact

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Unit 3 - Page 1 English - Academic

Unit 3: Diversity

Time: 23 hours

Unit Developers: Mark McKechnie, Nora Christos, Sheri McCready

Development Date April 2000

Unit Description

Students want to make sense of the world around them so that they feel that they belong. Through the
examination of patterns, students will explore and analyse issues of inclusion and exclusion. Examining
literary, media, and mythic texts will give students the opportunity to explore the impact of exclusion and
the power of inclusion. Students will learn how media texts create misconceptions and stereotypes about
human diversity, and thereby help to maintain hurtful practices. Through critical analysis of these texts,
students will explore their underlying assumptions, values, and beliefs. These skills give students the
tools to become caring, compassionate, and creative individuals in our global community. The power of
literature will give students the opportunity to discover solutions for the negative consequences of
stereotyping. In essence, students will learn that human diversity is a strength and that there is unity in
diversity. Students will apply their new knowledge and skills by creating a personal multi-genre
anthology as an exploration of human diversity.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language, Media Studies

Overall Expectations: LIV.02D, WRV.03D, WRV.04D, WRV.05D, LGV.01D, LGV.02D.

Specific Expectations: LI1.01D, LI1.02D, LI1.03D, LI1.04D, LI1.05D, LI1.06D, LI1.07D, LI3.01D,
LI3,02D, WR1.03D, WR2.01D, WR2.03D, WR2.04D, WR3.01D, WR3,03D, WR4.04D, WR5.02D,
WR5.03D, WR5.04D, WR5.06D, LG1.03D, LG1.04D, LG1.05D, LG1.06D, LG1.07D, LG2.01D,
LG2.02D, LG2.08D, MD1.01D, MD1.02D, MD1.03D.

Subtask (Activity) Titles (Time + Sequence)

Subtask 1 Our Self-perceptions 144 minutes
Subtask 2 Stories That Shape Us 360 minutes
Subtask 3 The Modern Short Story 360 minutes
Subtask 4 Stories That Shape Us Now 360 minutes
Subtask 5 Personal Anthology 144 minutes

Unit Planning Notes

It is highly recommended that anti-discrimination consultants and resource individuals in your Board
or community be contacted to provide support to this timely work. In addition, School Resource
Centres and Student Services have valuable learning resources for this unit. This support assures
affirmation of all students.

It is recommended that for this unit, teachers/facilitators/department heads purchase single copies of
anthologies of literature from around the world.

Blackline Masters may be useful tools for time management. Teachers may wish to refer to specific
learning strategies as a way to set goals with students. In addition, teachers may wish to refer to IEPs
for specific accommodations.

Teachers may also wish to share the rubrics for each assignment with students in advance, or they
may have students design their own rubrics (self/peer assessment).

Unit 3 - Page 2 English - Academic

Information from the Internet must be screened by teachers.

To address the language/grammar expectations highlighted on BLM 1.2-3, teachers continue to
incorporate mini-lessons as suggested in Unit 1.

Prior Knowledge Required

Unit 2: Voices

The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9-10, English, 1999

Grade 9 English Course Profile- Academic, 1999

Task Summary

Students analyse literary, mythic, and media works to explore and interpret our multicultural society.
They read and write frequently at home and at school for both formative and summative purposes.
To begin the unit, students write a number of journal responses exploring their perceptions of issues such
as belonging, power, privilege, and identity. They write analyses of pattern, purpose, and characteristics
in myths, legends, and stories. They make a creative oral presentation on modern short stories based on
the critical and analytical skills developed in this task. Students also analyse modern dramas and sitcoms
and write a review applying their emerging knowledge, values, and beliefs. Finally, students design a
multigenre anthology in which they make creative decisions about point of view, format, and stylistic
conventions. The anthology comprises a television review, a myth, and a final journal entry.
Students continue the Independent Reading component begun in Unit 1 by reading a book connected to
the theme “Diversity” in preparation for Unit 5. They maintain their reading response journal and
conference with the teacher.

Culminating Activity

As a culminating task, students prepare a personal anthology of their writing: two shaped pieces from
their journal (poem, letter, monologue), a myth, and a review of a television program. After peer editing,
students use computer technology to publish their work

Resources

Adams, Bell & Griffin.
Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook. Routledge, 1997.
ISBN 0415910579
Anderson, D.
Teaching and Learning Styles: 4MAT: A Unit of Study of Advanced Level English.
Toronto: OSSTF.

Antiracism and Ethnocultural Equity in School Boards: Guidelines for Policy Development and
Implementations. Ministry of Education and Training, 1993.
Anti-Racism, Multiculturalism, and Native Issues Centre.
Cultural Profiles: Ethnic Groups. Faculty of
Social Work, University of Toronto, 1998.
An informative series of booklets about various ethnic groups.
Armstrong, T.
Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Virginia: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 1994.
Bandler, R. and J. Grinder.
Reframing: Neuro Linguistic Programming and the Transforming of
Meaning. Moab, UT: Real People Press, 1982. ISBN 0-911226-24-9
Brown, J. and E. Stephens.
United in Diversity: Using Multicultural Young Adult Literature in the
Classroom. NCTE, 1998. ISBN 0814155715
Chideya, F.
Don’t Believe the Hype: Fighting Cultural Misinformation About African Americans. Plume,
1995. IBSN 0452270960
Chong, D.
The Penguin Anthology of Stories by Canadian Women. Penguin, 1989. ISBN 0-670-87633-X

Unit 3 - Page 3 English - Academic

Clarke, J. B
uilding Self-Esteem and Responsibility Through Cooperative Small Group Learning.
Bellevue, WA: Bureau of Education and Research.
Clarke, J., R. Wideman, and S. Eadie.
Together We Learn: Cooperative Small Group Learning.
Scarborough: Prentice Hall, Canada Inc., 1989. ISBN 0-13-924556-1
Colchie, T.
A Hammock Beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Penguin, 1998.
ISBN 0-525-93367-0
Connecticut’s Pomperang Region School District 15.
A Teacher’s Guide to Performance-Based
Learning. USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1996.
Danielson, Charlotte.
Enhancing Professional Practice. Virginia: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 1986.
Danks, C. and L. Rabinksy.
Teaching for a Tolerant World. NCTE., 1999. ISBN 0-8141-5289-9
DuGay, P. and S. Hall.
Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. London: Sage, 1997.
Dunning, S. and W. Stafford.
Getting the Knack. United States: National Council of Teachers, 1992.
Forgarty, R.
How to Integrate the Curricula. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing, Inc., 1991.
Goleman, D.
Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam, 1995.
Golub, J.
“Activities for an Interactive Classroom”. Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English,
1994.

A Guide to Key Antiracism Terms and Concepts, 2nd Edition.
Ontario Antiracism Secretariat, Ministry of Citizenship
Hutchinson, J.
“Teaching Literature in High School: The Novel”. Illinois: National Council of Teachers
of English, 1995.
Lester, J.
Diverse Identities: Classic Multicultural Essays. NTC, 1995. ISBN 0844258849
Lewin, L. and B. Shoemaker.
Great Performances. USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 1998.
Marlyn, J.
Under the Ribs of Death. McClelland & Stewart, 1996. ISBN 0-7710-9866-9
This novel examines the experience of a Hungarian immigrant as he struggles to become a “real
Canadian”.
Marzano, R.
Assessing Student Outcome: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning
Model. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993.
ISBN 0-87120-225-5.
McKelvey, B.
Demystifying Thinking: A Practical Handbook for Teachers. Toronto: Prentice Hall
Canada, 1995.
Ministry of Education and Training.
Media Literacy. Toronto: Ministry of Education, 1989.
Ministry of Education and Training.
Media Literacy Resource Book. 1989.
Intermediate and Senior Divisions.
Moses, D.
Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English. Oxford University Press, 1998.
ISBN 0195412826
Neumann, B. and H. McDonnell.
Teaching the Short Story: A Guide to Using Stories form around the
World. USA: National Council of Teachers of English, 1996.
O’Connor, K.
How to Grade for Learning. USA: Skylight Training and Publishing Inc., 1999.
OSSTF.
Mindscapes: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Toronto: Educational Services Committee,
1997.

Out of the Fire: A Play about Violence in Schools. Theatre Complete: QECVI Kingston.
This short video examines the causes of violence in schools and offers suggestions for prevention.

Playing Fair: Carol’s Mirror. National Film Board of Canada, 1992. C 9191 131

Unit 3 - Page 4 English - Academic

Queen’s Anti-Racism Review.
Crossing Barriers: Diverse Minds Speak Out Anti-Racism Review 1997.
Vol. 2
Robinson, J. and R. Bowman.
Building Cultural Bridges. 1997. ISBN 1-879639-47-5
National Education Service Resource Package
Root, R. and M. Steinberg.
“Those Who Do, Can”. Illinois: National Council of Teachers, 1996.
Sachs, M.
Beyond Safe Boundaries. Puffin, 1990. ISBN 0140344071
Segal, A.
Caribbean Literature. National Textbook Company, 1998.
Slapin, B., D. Seale, and R. Gonzales.
How to Tell the Difference: A Checklist for Evaluating Children’s
Books for Anti-Indian Bias. Oyate, 1995. ISBN 0962517550
Staples, S.
Dangerous Skies. Harper Trophy, 1998. ISBN 0064406830
Sternberg, R.
Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1995. ISBN 0-521-26254-2
Stevens, J.
Best Canadian Short Stories. Bantam, 1986. ISBN 9994911309
Taylor, D.
Funny, You Don’t Look Like One: Observations from a Blue Eyed Ojibway. Theytus Books
Ltd., 1996. ISBN 0919441084

Themes in Reading: A Multicultural Collection, Vol 1-3
http://www.jamestownpublishers.com
Thomson, J.
Understanding Teenagers’ Reading: Reading Processes and the Teaching of Literature.
New York: Nichols Publishing Company, 1987.
Wiggins, G. and J. McTighe.
Understanding by Design. USA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 1998. ISBN 0-87120-313-8
Winzer, M.
Children with Exceptionalities: In Canadian Classrooms. Scarborough: Prentice Hall, 1995.
ISBN 0-205-19754-X.
Wonder, J. and P. Donovan.
Whole Brain Thinking: Working From Both Sides of the Brain To Achieve
Real Job Performance. NY: Ballantine, 1984. ISBN 0-345-32204-5
Worley, D.
African-American Literature: An Anthology. National Textbook Company, 1997.
ISBN 0844259241

Subtask 1: Our Self-perceptions

Time: 144 minutes

Description

Students examine their own values and belief systems, as a stepping stone for discussion about the nature
of diversity. They become aware of underlying assumptions in their personal beliefs. Students begin with
written and verbal explorations of their own perceptions. Guided by a series of critical analysis questions,
they record their ideas in an ongoing response journal.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

LGV.02D - use listening techniques and oral communication skills to participate in classroom
discussions and more formal activities, such as dramatizing, presenting, and debating, for a variety of
purposes and audiences.

Unit 3 - Page 5 English - Academic

Specific Expectations

WR1.03D - sort and label information, ideas, and data; evaluate the accuracy, ambiguity, relevance, and
completeness of the information; and make judgements and draw conclusions based on the research (e.g.,
verify data by using multiple sources; identify and reconcile inconsistencies; identify significant
omissions that need to be addressed);
LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;
LG1.06D - recognize, describe, and correct sentence errors in oral and written language (e.g., run-on
sentence, comma splice, dangling modifier);
LG2.01D - recognize, describe, and correct sentence errors in oral and written language (e.g., run-on
sentence, comma splice, dangling modifier);
LG2.02D - communicate in group discussions by assigning tasks fairly and equitably; using verbal and
non-verbal cues to signal a change in topic or speaker; contributing ideas, supporting interpretations and
viewpoints; extending and questioning the ideas of others; summarizing the progress of the group’s work;
checking for understanding; and negotiating consensus when appropriate.

Subtask Planning Notes

Note:

Definitions of Diversity:
“[Diversity is] variety in terms of ethnicity, gender, ability, age, physical characteristics, religion, values,
culture and lifestyle.” (Multiculturalism Secretariat, 1993)
“Diversity exists when all communities including traditionally excluded communities and all designated
groups within communities can effectively voice their issues and partake equitably in the decision
making structures that determine their lives.” (Antiracism Secretariat)

Teachers are reminded to place the personal survey (BLM 3.1-1) within the context of the
definitions.

Students use their response journal extensively throughout this unit. The process of reflection helps
students understand the wide range of influences which play a significant role in how they see the
world. The information is used to demonstrate differences in beliefs, values, assumptions, and
attitudes about self and the world. At the end of this subtask, the journal is collected and assessed
only for completion because this subtask is personal, exploratory, and sensitive. It does not lend itself
to a formal assessment strategy. Teacher’s comments can be anecdotal and suggestive in referring
students to other texts to read, view and discuss. Teachers remind students the journals will contain
raw materials that will eventually be shaped for the culminating activity in four weeks time. Teachers
also advise students that their response journals will be assessed at the end of the unit.

Students respond to specific questions outlined in the teaching/learning strategies of each subtask. In
addition, time permitting, students respond to the following questions in their journal each day:
a) How did you feel about today’s class?
b) What did you like? Dislike? Why?
c) Did you learn anything that you did not know? Explain.
d) Did anything we learned apply in any way to everyday life? If yes, how? If not, why not?

Each day’s journal entry should be about a page or a page and a half

Unit 3 - Page 6 English - Academic

To prepare for the Book Festival, students must be reminded that they are responsible for choosing
and reading a novel that reflects this unit’s focus (Refer to Unit 1).

Teachers should gather markers, chart paper, blank paper to prepare for this subtask. As well,
teachers preview/copy BLMs.

Teachers should collect good quality photographs (same size) of individuals of various individuals of
various ethnicities. Resource posters may also be obtained from Building Bridges of Understanding
1-888-NO2HATE.

Teachers should also participate in all activities to recognize the sensitivity of these tasks.

As new information becomes available, students may feel a little confused, so teachers need to
encourage students to tolerate ambiguity and to maintain an openness and a sense of humility about
their beliefs.

Teachers may need to remind students that we all have biases and that this unit is about critically
examining these beliefs.

Teachers may wish to use senior students who have participated in diversity/leadership programs to
role model appropriate language, activities. Peer modeling is a useful strategy to support this unit.

When students start looking at the web diagram, the area of language is a particularly rich one for
exploring sameness and difference in various cultural contexts. The teacher may wish then to
familiarize themselves with how different cultures interpret such things as colours, emotions,
gestures, and beliefs. Student could then be directed to the library resources area to do additional
research in the vertical files and CD-ROMs.

Note: Teachers also need to remind students that they need to be sensitive to what could be emotional
issues in this unit. Teachers therefore, may not wish to give students the lead in group discussions at this
point in the unit.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Brainstorming

Discussion

Response Journal

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually

Students working in small groups
1. The teacher continues to provide the opportunity for students to read on a regular basis in class as
part of the Independent Reading component of the course. Teacher reminds students that their
independent reading selection should be linked to the theme of the unit. Students maintain a reading
response journal. The teacher continues to monitor student progress.
2. The teacher begins the unit with a warmup activity to review discussion protocol and guidelines.
Students brainstorm rules of engagement to establish boundaries and strategies for participation in
and closure of discussions. Emphasis is placed on sensitivity and respect for all members of the class.
The teacher records information on chart paper and posts it in the class.
Note: The teacher ensures
that students recognize that confidentiality is an important and mature request.
3. The teacher writes two definitions of diversity on the board. Students copy these definitions.
Diversity: Variety in terms of ethnicity, gender, ability, age, physical characteristics, religion,
values, culture, and lifestyle. (Multiculturalism Secretariat, 1993)
Diversity exists when all communities including traditionally excluded communities and all
designated groups within communities can effectively voice their issues and partake equitably in
the decision making structures that determine their lives. (Antiracism Secretariat)
The teacher facilitates a class discussion by asking students
(a) What do these definitions mean to you?
(b) Can you think of any examples of where these terms apply?

Unit 3 - Page 7 English - Academic

4. Teacher introduces the topic ‘Who We Are’ by distributing BLM 3.1-1 – I Am A Person Who, a
quick personal survey. Then the teacher introduces the theme of Hopes, Wishes and Dreams. (e.g.,
‘We all have a desire to be somebody. We all have hopes, wishes, and dreams for ourselves, people
near and dear to us and for the world.’) Students record their hopes, wishes, dreams in a perfect
world: two or three things they hope for themselves, two or three things they hope for people near
and dear to them, two or three things for the world.
5. The teacher introduces the topic of belonging to human groups and organizations. The teacher raises
the idea that we all belong to many different groups at the same time. Students are asked to think of
groups they belong to. Teacher might give a prompt, for example, ancestors, being a student, man or
woman, might live with others, friendships, interests, etc. (
Caution: Some students may live on their
own. If so, extend to the idea of living in a community/town/city.)
6. The teacher raises the idea that amongst people and groups there are different levels and kinds of
power and privilege. Teacher asks for brief responses to “What do the terms power and privilege
mean to you?” The teacher distributes BLM 3.1-2 that describes nine different types of power bases.
Students work in pairs to explore and describe the various ways people and groups might attain
and/or maintain power and privilege. Students are asked to identify and discuss which of the nine
power bases are true for them and their partner, and which are not.
7. Students respond and record their thoughts in their response journals using the following two
questions: What do your hopes, wishes and dreams tell you about what is important to you? What
might prevent you from achieving your hopes, wishes, and dreams? Why? Explain.
8. The teacher distributes BLM 3.1-3 – Web Diagram. The teacher introduces the Web Diagram as an
analysis tool to explore the ways in which individuals may or may not have access to power and
privilege.
9. The teacher asks students to use the Web Diagram to identify who they are, that is, the groups to
which they belong, where they might have or lack advantage. There are eight sections in the Web
Diagram. Each section refers to one characteristic: for example, ethnicity/cultural background,
gender/sex, ability/disability, age, physical characteristics, religion, family structure and economic
status. The teacher clarifies meanings of each category. Other categories may be used such as
language, interests, family influences, etc.; however, they should be the same for the whole class.
10. In the inner circle, students fill in what is true for them. Students fill in the second level of the Web
to identify what they believe is true for the rest of the people in the classroom. Then, students fill in
the third level to identify what they believe is true for their community/society. Students might want
to look at what they think is true for the rest of the school.
11. Students may share their responses to the following questions: Which of these categories may be
limiting factors in achieving your hopes, wishes, and dreams. In what ways might you have
advantages in terms of these categories? Which of these categories are both an advantage and a
disadvantage at the same time? Do any of these categories influence who your friends are? Explain.
12. Students then work in pairs to discuss their ideas of what they think is true for the rest of the class
and their community. The teacher facilitates large group discussion regarding the implications of
students' findings and variations in responses. The teacher raises the questions: How might being the
same as most people in a group give a person advantages? How might being different from the rest of
the group be a disadvantage or an advantage?
13. In their response journals, students use their Web Diagram to reflect on “Who I Am”. Students
consider the following questions: If you are the same as most people in your class or community,
what advantages might you have? How might this be a disadvantage now and in the future? If you are
very different from the people in your class or community, how is this both an advantage and a
disadvantage? Include the advantages or disadvantages gender roles play in achieving your hopes,
wishes, and dreams?

Unit 3 - Page 8 English - Academic

Then, students record three or four ideas about the following: What attributes do we associate with
people who have wealth and power and people who have not? On what do you base your opinions?
How are these opinions formed?
14. To continue this reflection and to introduce the topic of stereotyping, students are divided into groups
of three or four. The teacher provides four large pictures of people from diverse communities – from
personal collection or magazines. If from magazines, the pictures must be of people that the teacher
has some knowledge of. Write on the back what you know about these people and what they are like.
15. The teacher keeps posters or pictures covered until ready for the exercise. Teacher unveils the
posters. First part of the activity is about ten minutes. Students are asked to record and respond
silently and individually to the following: What do you see? What is this person like? Would you like
to get to know this person? Why? The teacher will also ask students to also consider and record the
following questions: How old are they? Where were they born? What is their cultural background?
What language do they speak? Favourite foods? Interests? Skills? What do they do in their spare
time? How well do they do in school? How are you the same? Different?
16. Students are given five minutes to discuss their observations with other members of their group. Each
group will select one or two people to present a few of the group’s observations to the class. The
class makes a list of positive and negative ideas.
17. The identity of the individuals depicted in the pictures is revealed. Students should then be given an
accurate description of what the people in the pictures or posters are really like.
18. The teacher debriefs students by asking the following questions: What did you learn from this
experience? What do you call what we just did? What are the consequences of judging people by
how they look? Have you ever felt you were wrongly judged by your appearance? What does this do
to you? How fair is it if you are consistently judged by your appearance? What influences our
perceptions about people who are different from us?
19. The teacher asks students in their groups to begin to form a definition of stereotyping. The teacher
presents the following working definition of stereotyping (with some examples): “attributing a false
or generalized idea to a group of people that results in thinking about each member of that group in
the same way, without regard for individual differences. Stereotyping may be based on
misunderstanding and false generalizations about gender or age, racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious,
geographic, or national groups; social, marital, or family status; or physical, developmental, or
mental abilities.” (www.edu.gov.on.ca/engdoc/resource/vip.html.#values)
20. In their response journals, students reflect on a time when they experienced positive or negative
stereotyping and the impact it had on them.
21. The teacher collects the response journals from students and checks them for completion. To help
students in their “polishing” of one journal piece when they reach Subtask 5, the teacher checks, but
does not assess, mechanics.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Response Journal Anecdotal Record

Formative

Anecdotal assessment of response journal.

Anecdotal record of students completing response journal for Subtask 1 (not included in BLMs).

Anecdotal assessment of BLMs.

Adaptations

The teacher offers an alternative form of participation for students whose cultures do not encourage
oral discussion, e.g., writing.

Unit 3 - Page 9 English - Academic

Resources

Building Bridges of Understanding
1-888-NO2HATE

Blackline Masters

BLM 3.1-1 – I Am A Person Who
BLM 3.1-2 – Power and Privilege
This BLM outlines different levels of power and privilege.
BLM 3.1-3 – Web Diagram
This BLM allows students to critically examine specific categories related to their social context.

Subtask 2: Stories That Shape Us

Time: 360 minutes

Description

Students, through an examination of traditional myths and legends, understand the resilience of these
stories and their importance in shaping their own perceptions and attitudes about gender, personal and
social values. They demonstrate their understanding of the patterns, characteristics, and purpose of these
stories by creating a modern myth or legend.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Writing, Language

Overall Expectations

WRV.04D - revise their written work, independently and collaboratively, with a focus on support for
ideas and opinions, accuracy, clarity, coherence, and effective use of stylistic devices;
WRV.05D - edit and proofread to produce final drafts, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
according to the conventions of standard Canadian English specified for this course, with the support of
print and electronic resources when appropriate.

Specific Expectations

LI1.04D - use relevant, significant, and explicit information and ideas from texts to support
interpretations (e.g., use relevant evidence to support an explanation of the theme of a poem or short
story; select quotations from an essay that best communicate the author’s arguments);
LI1.07D - explain how the values and perspectives of readers might influence their responses to a text
and interpretations of it (e.g., record individual responses of group members to a poem, note similarities
and differences in the responses, identify patterns, and suggest explanations for their findings compare
the implicit perspectives in two letters to the editor about the same article);
LI3.01D - compare the use of diction and syntax in the work of different authors and explain how these
elements enhance the theme or message (e.g., compare the use of sentence variety in paragraphs by two
different authors; identify examples of archaic diction in literature from any historical period and give
modern-English equivalents);
WR2.01D - demonstrate an understanding of a range of literary and informational forms, such as poems,
narratives, comparison-and-contrast and cause-and-effect essays, speeches, and research reports, by using
forms of writing appropriate to different purposes and audiences (e.g., rewrite an episode of a story from
the point of view of a different character; use a formal, objective voice in a short essay; write a speech
for a class debate);

Unit 3 - Page 10 English - Academic

WR2.03D - consider the characteristics of the intended audience in selecting an appropriate form and
developing the content of written work (e.g., use examples or images familiar to their peers in a poem to
be read in class; include background information the audience needs to know in the introduction to an
essay);
WR2.04D - select a voice and an appropriate level of language to suit the form, purpose, and audience of
their writing (e.g., use an impersonal voice and formal language in an academic essay; use everyday
vocabulary and colloquial phrasing to engage the interest of an audience of peers);
WR3.01D - select a voice and an appropriate level of language to suit the form, purpose, and audience of
their writing (e.g., use an impersonal voice and formal language in an academic essay; use everyday
vocabulary and colloquial phrasing to engage the interest of an audience of peers);
WR5.04D - edit and proofread their own and others’ writing, correcting errors according to the
requirements for grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation listed below;
WR5.06D - construct a variety of complete and correct sentences (including compound-complex
sentences), using prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive, participial, and gerund phrases;
and noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);
LG1.04D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem).

Subtask Planning Notes

At the beginning of this subtask, the teacher explains that during the unit some classical Greek and
Roman myths will be examined. The teacher hands out an example (e.g., Persephone and Demeter,
Athena, etc.). Teachers should also bring in additional examples; for example, Hercules, Jason and
the Golden Fleece.

Teachers should also bring in a range of myths from other countries; for example, Anancy Tales,
“The Nutmeg Princess” and Nanbush from West Africa and the Caribbean, the Middle-East and
North America.

Teachers supply children’s stories for students who may not have stories to share. such as “Sleeping
Beauty”, “Snow White”, etc.

Teachers may find Joseph Campbell’s
Hero With a Thousand Faces to be of use. Teachers should
critique Campbell’s work because he writes from within a Eurocentric viewpoint. Teachers may wish
to read more widely in this area; for example, other theorists, such as feminists, Marxists, and poststructuralists
take a very different position on the universality of myths.

Teachers may also refer to
Deeds of Gods and Heroes for reference.

Teachers should remind students that computer lab time should be booked.

Teachers may organize with teachers at their elementary feeder schools to make arrangements for
reading of their stories. Students read their story to a specific grade (where schedules permit).

Teachers keep copies of exemplary work.

Prior Knowledge Required

The teacher may need to review definitions of protagonist/antagonist, plot, setting, character, point of
view, symbol, image, and moral lesson for this subtask.

Unit 3 - Page 11 English - Academic

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Brainstorming

Discussion

Response Journal

Direct Teaching

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually
1. As an introduction to this activity, teachers ask students to think of the stories that were told to them
as children. They answer the following questions about these stories in their journals. Questions:
a) What stories do you remember as a child? What stories did you enjoy as a child? Why?
(examples may include myths, legends, fairytales) Did they represent the lives of you, your
family and ancestors? Did these stories reflect the people in Canada?
b) Were they from the written or oral tradition?
c) Choose one story. How were the individuals in that story portrayed? What did they look like?
What did the villains look like? Describe the heroes? Did they (heroes, villains) look like you,
people in your family or ancestors? Explain how it matters or does not matter.
d) Make a hypothesis about the purpose of myths, legends, fairytales? What did they tell you about
the advantage/disadvantage of being in charge or not being in charge. Conclude what they might
have told you about beauty, co-operation, competition, and/or who is important and valued?
(e) Was there a moral in the story? If so, is it relevant for all people? Who lost or won? What was
lost or won? Was the ending fair for everyone? Why or why not?
2. Some students may wish to orally share their stories with the class.
3. Using their stories as a basis, students choose three key words (adjectives) that describe the
protagonist. The teacher writes these words on the board. Students then choose three key words
(adjectives) that describe the antagonist. The teacher writes these words on the board. Finally,
students choose six words (verbs/ adverbs) that describe the movements or actions of both the
protagonist and the antagonist.
4. Students are then asked to classify these words as positive or negative. The teacher records this
information on the board as well.
5. The teacher uses these words to explain the difference between connotation and denotation within
the context of a myth, legend, or fairytale. (For example, often, if the protagonist is blond, and
dressed in white, then the reader is likely to perceive this individual as honest and inherently good).
Questions to ask:
a) What role does colour play in framing our perceptions of who is good and who is evil in
fairytales, myths, and legends?
b) What message does this send to those who do not fit the physical, social or economic status and
descriptions of the heroes or heroines or the people with power, wealth, and happiness? What
impact might this have on a child?
6. Students look up and compare dictionary meanings of ‘black’ and ‘white’. What do these meanings
say about how neutral the dictionary is, and how neutral stories are? Students might think of positive
and negative everyday sayings with the words ‘black’ and ‘white’. They could think of positive
alternatives to negative uses of the word ‘black’.
(For example, instead of ‘black ice’ to describe hazardous road conditions – ‘invisible ice’ which is
the reality – drivers can’t see the ice – it’s invisible! )
7. Orally, students share their perceptions of how the protagonists and antagonists were described in
their stories.
8. The teacher gives students a legend (e.g., Hercules, Jason and the Golden Fleece) . It is read orally by
the students and the teacher.

Unit 3 - Page 12 English - Academic

9. With this legend as a basis, the teacher reviews the dominant characteristics of the myth, legend, or
fairytale (see BLM 3.2-1 – Dominant Characteristics of Myths, Legends, and Fairytales).
10. Using information from this legend, students answer the questions on BLM 3.2-2 – Quest/Journey
Pattern in order to begin recognizing how some myths, legends, and fairy tales demonstrate
recognizable patterns.
11. The teacher presents BLM 3.2-3 – Quest/Journey Plotline, a pattern that has universal applications.
The legend is examined from this perspective. The students attach the events from the legend to the
plotline, demonstrating how the pattern fits this narrative structure.
12. The teacher presents an alternative pattern by reading a First Nations Legend, an African, Asian, or
Middle Eastern legend.
13. The teacher presents BLM 3.2-4 – Breach of Community Pattern. Students answer the questions to
recognize the characteristics of the beginning, middle, and end of the Breach of Community Myth.
Students attach the events of this narrative to the plotline sketch on BLM 3.2-5 – Breach of
Community Plotline.
14. Students are asked to draw conclusions and make generalizations about the differences in the
patterns. Orally, students discuss what these patterns may reflect about communities or societies.
15. Students respond to the following questions in their journal:
a) What plot features do the two types of stories have in common?
b) What factors could account for the differences in the stories?
c) What values and beliefs are apparent in the stories?
d) Do you share these values and beliefs? Which ones?
e) What lessons can be learned in the stories, that is, what messages do these stories send about:
who deserves power, wealth and happiness; who is beautiful; who is important; and/or who is
valued?
f) Is this lesson relevant for you? Explain.
g) What do we learn about ourselves through the stories?
h) What do we learn about our community through the stories?
i) What do we learn about our roles and status in the community?
j) Do these stories still teach us anything about life or living? Explain.
k) Based on your Web Diagram profile, where do you belong/fit in these stories? For example,
would you be a hero, villain, victim, king, queen, princess, a person with economic status and
power? Who would you like to be in the story, and why?
16. The teacher introduces the writing assignment (BLM 3.2-6 – Myth/Legend Writing Activity) and
explains that students’ journal responses may prove to be a valuable resource in the writing of their
own modern myth/legend that could be read to elementary school children.
17. Students will use blank BLMs 3.2-1 (Dominant Characteristics); 3.2-2/2-3 (Quest/Journey) or 3.2-
4/2-5 (Breach of Community); and BLM 3.2-7 (Languages, Images, and Symbols) to plan their
myth/legend.
18. Students develop their planning notes into a narrative, using the structure of their myth. The narrative
should be approximately 500 words in length.
19. Students work in pairs to peer edit their rough work using BLM 3.2-8 – Editing Checklist for the
Myth or Legend.
20. The teacher allows time for the students to complete the writing process for this assignment,
including providing computer lab access for students who would like to word-process their final
copy.
21. The teacher collects the students’ creative writing assignment for summative evaluation using BLM
3.2-9 – Myth/Legend Writing Scoring Guide.
22. The teacher collects the response journals from students and checks them for completion. To help
students in their “polishing” of one journal piece when they reach Subtask 5, the teacher checks, but
does not assess, mechanics.

Unit 3 - Page 13 English - Academic

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques

Assessment Strategies Assessment Recording Devices

Essay

Response Journal

Questions and Answers (Oral)

Rubric

Anecdotal Record

Checklist

Formative

Anecdotal assessment of response journal.

Anecdotal assessment of BLMs to ensure completeness and understanding.

Teacher assists students while they complete editing checklist.

Summative

Rubric used to assess the Creation of Modern Myth/Legend (listed in assessment strategies as essay).

Adaptations

Students who do not remember or have any stories to share may ask their friends or family members
to share one of their stories. The teacher may also provide examples.

Students are encouraged to bring in myths, legends, and fairytales from other cultures.

ESL and LD students may need more time to complete the writing activity.

Teachers need to build in conferencing time for students who need it.

Teachers may offer students an opportunity for enrichment by having them illustrate their myth or
legend.

Audio tapes of stories, myths are available.

Key information may need to be displayed in the class for some students.

Resources

Archibald, J., V. Friesen, and J. Smith.
Courageous Spirits, Aboriginal Heroes of Our Children.
Penticton: Theytus Books Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-919441-50-5
Bruchac, J.
Between Earth and Sky. Harcourt Brace, 1998. ISBN 0-15-200042-9
Cave, K.
Something Else. Mondo Publishing - Penguin, 1998. ISBN 1572555637
Charles, V. M.
Stretch, Swallow & Stare. Stoddart Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7737-30982
Cole, B.
Princess Smartypants. Paper Star, 1997. ISBN 06988115554
Comissiong, L.
Mind Me Good Now. Annick Press, 1991. ISBN 1550374826
Crook, C.B.
Maple Moon. Toronto: Stoddart Kids, 1997. ISBN 0-7737-3017-6
Dillon, L. and D. Dillon.
Her Stories: African American Folktales, Fairy Tales and True Tales. New
York: The Blue Sky Press, 1995. ISBN 0-590-47370-0
Dyson, A. and Genishi, C.
The Need for Story: Cultural Diversity in Classroom and Community. NCTE,
1994. ISBN 0-8141-3300-2
Edwards, P. and H. Cole.
Dinorella: A Prehistoric Fairy Tale. New York: Hyperion Books, 1997.
ISBN 0786803096
Fox, R.
The Creator’s Gift. Anishinaabe Kendasswin Pub., 1994. ISBN 1-896027-08-3
Keenes, Douglas, R.
Freedom Child of the Sea. Annick Press Ltd., 1997. ISBN 1-55037-372-2
Keenes, Douglas, R.
The Nutmeg Princess. Annick Press Ltd., 1992. ISBN 155037236x
King.
A Coyote Columbus Story. Toronto: Groundwood Book, Douglas and McIntyre, 1992.
ISBN 088899155x
King, T.
Coyote Sings to the Moon. Toronto: Key Porter Books Ltd., 1995. ISBN 1561893986
Lottridge, C.
Mythic Voices. McDougol Littell and Co., 1994. ISBN 081238198x

Unit 3 - Page 14 English - Academic

Plain, F.
Eagle Feather - An Honour. Winnipeg: Pemmican Pub., 1992. ISBN 0-921827-12-1
Seuss, Dr.
The Sneetches and Other Stories. New York: Random House, 1989. ISBN 0394800893
Silverman, E.
Raisel’s Riddle. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999. ISBN 0-374-36168-1
Stern, A.
Tales from Many Lands: An Anthology of Multicultural Folk Literature. NTC., 1996.
ISBN 0844208558
Stern, A.
World Folk Tales: An Anthology of Multicultural Folk Literature. NTC., 1994.
ISBN 0844207810
Sydor, C. and R. Ohi.
Ooo-cha! Annick Press Ltd., 1999. ISBN 1-555037-604-7
Taylor, C.J.
Little Water and the Gift of the Animals. Toronto: Tundra Books, 1992.
ISBN 0-88776-400-2
Van Laan, N.
In a Circle Long Ago: A Treasury of Native Lore from North America. Toronto: Apple
Soup Books, 1995. ISBN 0-679-85807-5

Blackline Masters

BLM 3.2-1 – Dominant Characteristics of Myths, Legends, and Fairytales
This BLM provides a structure for students to analyse the dominant characteristics of myths, legends, or
fairytales
BLM 3.2-2 – Quest/Journey Pattern
This BLM provides a structure for students to analyse the quest/journey pattern.
BLM 3.2-4 – Breach of Community Pattern
This BLM offers a structure for students to analyse different patterns found in myths, legends, or
fairytales.
BLM 3.2-6 – Myth/Legend Writing Activity
This BLM offers a guide for students to write their creative myths, legends, or fairytales.
BLM 3.2-3 – Quest/Journey Plotline
This BLM provides a structure to analyse the aspects of the quest/journey pattern.
BLM 3.2-5 – Breach of Community Plotline
This BLM provides a circular template with the three main aspects of the breach of community pattern.
Students use this template to analyse their story.
BLM 3.2-7 – Language, Images, and Symbols
This BLM provides a structure for students to use in examining the words, symbols, and images used by
the protagonist and the antagonist.
BLM 3.2-8 – Editing Checklist for the Myth or Legend
A series of questions are asked to help guide students in editing their myth or legend.
BLM 3.2-9 – Myth/Legend Writing Scoring Guide
This rubric offers specific criteria for assessing students’ myths or legends.

Unit 3 - Page 15 English - Academic

Subtask 3: The Modern Short Story

Time: 360 minutes

Description

Students read and analyse modern stories from different cultures that reflect the patterns, characteristics,
and purposes of traditional myths and legends. They understand the use in today’s stories of different
motifs taken from traditional stories, such as the journey, the quest, transformation, and reconciliation. In
an oral presentation, students demonstrate their understanding by writing a modern narrative and
delivering it according to the oral tradition.

Strand(s) and Expectations

Strand(s): Literature Studies and Reading, Language

Overall Expectations

LGV.01D - use knowledge of vocabulary and language conventions to speak, write, and read
competently and effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences, using a level of language
appropriate to the context.

Specific Expectations

LI1.01D - describe information, ideas, opinions, and themes in print and electronic texts they have read
during the year from different cultures and historical periods and in a range of genres, including novels,
plays, short stories, poetry, opinion pieces, reports, short essays, full-length non-fiction works,
newspapers, magazines, and reference materials;
LI1.02D - select and read a range of texts for different purposes, with an emphasis on recognizing the
elements of literary genres and the organization of informational materials, evaluating print and
electronic materials as sources of information, and comparing personal ideas and values with those in
texts (e.g., read multicultural short fiction to deepen their understanding of Canada’s diversity; assess the
usefulness of a manual for a software application; develop a “profile” of a character in a play by
Shakespeare or a novel and then role-play an interview with the character);
LI1.03D - select and use a variety of reading strategies before, during, and after reading to understand
texts (e.g., preview a text; predict main ideas or outcomes; use prior knowledge and personal experiences
to interpret and assess ideas and information list unanswered questions while reading; role-play
alternative solutions to conflicts presented in the text);
LI1.07D - explain how the values and perspectives of readers might influence their responses to a text
and interpretations of it (e.g., record individual responses of group members to a poem, note similarities
and differences in the responses, identify patterns, and suggest explanations for their findings compare
the implicit perspectives in two letters to the editor about the same article);
LI3.02D - explain how authors use stylistic devices, such as allusion, contrast, hyperbole,
understatement, oxymoron, irony, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing (e.g., explain
the effects of the contradictory emotions or qualities expressed in an oxymoron; compare the poetic
devices used in two poems on a similar theme; do research to understand a mythical allusion in a piece of
literature or an advertisement and explain how the allusion enhances the theme or message in the text);
LG1.03D - select words and figurative expressions with understanding and sensitivity to enhance the
persuasive or expressive power of their speech and writing (e.g., select words and phrases for their sound
and rhythm in a speech; select words with symbolic associations for a poem);

Unit 3 - Page 16 English - Academic

LG1.05D - recognize, describe, and use correctly, in oral and written language, the language structures of
standard Canadian English and its conventions of grammar and usage, including:
– parts of speech, including infinitives and gerunds;
– types of sentences, including compound-complex sentences;
– components of sentences, including prepositional, adjective, and adverb phrases; infinitive and
gerund phrases; noun, adjective, and adverb clauses;
– agreement between subject and verb, and between pronoun and antecedent;
– consistency of verb tense and voice;
LG2.01D - communicate orally in group discussions for different purposes, with a focus on identifying
explicit and implicit ideas and comparing and contrasting key concepts and supporting details;
LG2.08D - analyse their own and others’ oral presentations, identifying strengths and weaknesses and
developing and carrying out plans for improvement.

Subtask Planning Notes

Teachers should review reading strategies to model them effectively. Teachers need to pay close
attention to how students are developing reading strategies and following directions. Teachers should
be aware of how students deal with the verbs which give direction in assignments. Teachers can
model how students should approach new and unfamiliar material to help prepare them for the Grade
10 Literacy Test.

Teachers should also be familiar with a variety of contemporary tales which are reworked myths.

Teachers should review aspects of oral reading such as projection, expression, posture, clarity, etc.

Teachers keep copies of exemplary work.

Teachers need to review/copy BLMs.

Students need to review BLM 3.2-1 – Dominant Characteristics from Subtask 2.

Teachers should make arrangements to have guest speakers, that is, storytellers come to demonstrate
and teach oral storytelling techniques.

Prior Knowledge Required

The teacher may wish to review comparative aspects of each genre including: characters, themes, etc.

Teaching/Learning Strategies

Strategies Student Groupings

Response Journal

Demonstration

Discussion

Read Aloud

Students working in small groups

Students working as a whole class

Students working individually
1. The teacher reviews dominant patterns, characteristics, and purposes of traditional myths and legends
(see Subtask 2).
2. The teacher explains that myths and legends have patterns that can be recognized in modern short